This chapter summarizes some of the main points of the book. It examines the view that the period of the Afghan rule witnessed the disintegration of the ‘centralized’ political structure of the Delhi Sultanate resulting in a general crisis. It notes the suggestion that this disintegration was caused by the ‘tribal’ or ‘centrifugal’ character of Afghan polity. Contrary to that, however, the Afghan rulers drew on the universal tropes of kingship for the articulation of their power. The details of governance recorded by the medieval authorities point to a kind of ‘welfare monarchy’ in the period. By the end of Akbar's reign the Afghans had reconciled to the Mughal rule, their marginalization continued throughout the Mughal period, and consequently in the historiography of medieval India as well.
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