This chapter begins with a description of cyberattacks against the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) in the summer of 2006. The attackers sought access to BIS employee user accounts, presumably to obtain data concerning BIS operations. They penetrated the BIS' system with a “rootkit” program, a type of software that lets attackers conceal their presence and gain privileged but unauthorized access to a computer system. It then argues that the approaches currently used for attribution and response are becoming increasingly unsatisfactory as cyberspace becomes a viable vector for attacks of whatever type. We must, therefore, either (a) modify the existing, general approach we use for real-world threat attribution and response so it also encompasses cyberthreats or (b) develop a supplementary, specialized approach for cyberthreat attribution and response.
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