This chapter summarizes the two central arguments of this book. First, testing theoretical models is not logically possible. Second, testing theoretical models is unnecessary and mistakes the true nature of models. We then address eight issues that our argument raises: (1) Talking about these issues is a distraction from getting on with our work. (2) I believe your arguments, but I will be criticized for adopting them. (3) You make an analogy between models and maps, but maps are tested! (4) Your approach to model evaluation is not precise. (5) Perhaps proponents of EITM cannot show evidence of progress, but neither can you. (6) What about verbal or computational models? (7) What should a political scientist do differently when he or she sits down at the computer to work? (8) Where do we go from here?
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