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Health Behavior Change and Treatment AdherenceEvidence-based Guidelines for Improving Healthcare$
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Leslie Martin, Kelly Haskard-Zolnierek, and M. Robin DiMatteo

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195380408

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380408.001.0001

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Evaluation of Risks, Decision Making, and Outcomes

Evaluation of Risks, Decision Making, and Outcomes

(p.108) 5 Evaluation of Risks, Decision Making, and Outcomes
Health Behavior Change and Treatment Adherence

Leslie R. Martin

Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek

M. Robin DiMatteo

Oxford University Press

Few people conduct a truly thorough and thoughtful evaluation of the evidence before they make a health-related decision. This chapter describes and evaluates strategies for making decisions based on empirical evidence. It then overviews the elements that are needed in order to understand health and medical risk information (e.g., Bayesian methods, odds ratios, risk ratios, survival analyses, and hazard ratios) as that information is typically presented in medical journals, scientific articles, news reports, and advertisements. The relative power of aggregated data (through meta-analysis) is also discussed. Evidence supporting the crucial role of the patient in decision making, and specific tools that can be used in decision making are presented (e.g., decision trees, PREPARED™), is reviewed.

Keywords:   decision-making, bayesian, odds ratio, risk ratio, survival analysis, hazard ratio, meta-analysis, decision tree, pREPARED™

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