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A Priest's Guide for the Great FestivalAghorasiva's Mahotsavavidhi$

Richard H. Davis

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195378528

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378528.001.0001

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(p.185) Index

(p.185) Index

Source:
A Priest's Guide for the Great Festival
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abhiṣeka (consecrating bath),28, 33–34, 70, 79–82, 118–120, 123, 124, 126, 128, 132, 134, 139, 141, 143
acalamūrtī (immobile body),26, 37
ācamana (sipping water),81
ācārya (preceptor, priest),13, 20, 21, 75, 101, 119, 127, 134
festival of,44, 123–124
ācāryābhiṣeka (priestly consecration),13, 21, 43, 79, 134
Ādhāraśakti,77, 81, 100
adhivāsana (preparatory rites),61, 71
Ādityas (group of twelve deities),42, 53, 71, 86, 93, 118
Adiyulā,52
Āgamas,3, 23, 25
AGHORA mantra,108, 120, 112, 125, 131
Aghoraśiva,3, 7, 18, 31
and his lineage of teachers,6
as author,6–13, 21–24
image of,20–21
vision of the festival,52, 55–58
Agni,36, 42, 53, 72, 90–91
agnikārya (fire rites),77, 99, 129
āhvāna (invitation),41, 88
Aiyanar,54
Ajitāgama4, 5, 25, 46, 47, 50
Alagappa Mudaliyar, Mayilai,3, 4, 6, 9
alamkāra (adornment),107
amāvāsyotsava (new-moon festival),27, 141–143
Ananta,42, 100
aṅgamantras,72, 77, 85, 98, 119, 123, 129
aṅkurārpana (sprouting of auspicious seeds),30, 51, 61–62, 70–71, 80, 89, 91, 117
annaliṅga (rice-liṅga),27, 38, 89, 103–104, 122
anugrāha (grace),35, 137–138
ārdra-paṅka (moist paste),124–125
arghya (reception water),72, 81, 131
āsana (seat, throne),39, 75, 97, 121
āśīrvāda (blessings),118
aṣṭamaṅgala (eight auspicious objects),74, 93, 104
Aṣṭaprakaraṇa,11–12
āsthāna-maṇḍapa (audience hall),66, 101, 115
ASTRA (weapon) mantra,33, 45, 77, 79, 88, 95, 103, 115, 127, 129, 137
(p.186) astrayāga (Trident ceremony),61–62
Asuras,54
Aśvins (group of two deities),86, 118
ātmārtha (on one's own behalf),18, 26
ātmaśuddhi (purification of the self),44, 72, 96
āvāhana (invocation),76, 81
bali, balidāna (tribute),33, 41–42, 48, 61–62, 81, 114
procedures of,101–106
balipīṭha (tribute pedestal),89, 91, 103, 141
balivāhaka (tribute carrier),50, 101, 104
Bhadrakālī, festival of,65
bhaktotsava (festival of the Devotees),45, 61–62, 134–136
Bhatt, N. R.,4, 14, 23
bheda (divisions of the festival),29, 61–62
bherī (type of drum),38, 42, 47, 70, 79–80, 83, 85–86, 101, 110, 115, 121, 127–128
worship of,87–88
bherītāḍaka (chief drummer),47, 101
bherītāḍaṇa (beating of the bherī drum),30, 34, 46, 79, 115–116, 121
procedures for,83–91
Bhikṣātana (Śiva as Beggar),19, 36, 38, 110
bhogāṅga (enjoyment position),39, 122
Bhūdevī,65
bhūśuddhi (purification of the ground),65
Bhūsūkta (Hymn to the Earth),70
bodhakas (scholars),82, 124
brahmamantras,36, 75, 77, 81, 85, 97–98, 100, 112–113, 119, 122, 129, 136
Brahman,36, 42, 53, 54, 104–105, 126
charioteer as,127
as Lord of the Site,42–43, 84, 92, 95–96
as Lord of tattva group,68, 76, 77–78
as World-guardian,73, 89–91
brahmasthāna (central location),31, 89
Brunner, Hélène,6, 7, 14, 23, 26
calamūrti (mobile body),26, 37, 65
Campantar,16
Caṇḍeśa,27, 31, 40, 41, 50, 65–66, 79, 84, 88, 107–108, 111, 121–122, 127, 133–134
festival of,34, 62, 120, 123
as Gaṇeśvara,96
shrine of,101
Candraśekhara (Śiva wearing the moon in his crown),28, 143–144
catussamskāra (fourfold consecration),87, 98, 116, 125
Cēramān Perumāl̥,52–57
Chidambaram,15, 21, 22, 24, 31, 78
and Chola patronage,18–20
Chola dynasty,16, 17–21, 23
cūrṇikā (recitations),88
cūrṇotsava (festival of powder),32, 61–62, 110, 134
procedures for,114–117
daivajñā (astronomer),47–48, 64, 66, 74, 79, 127
dakṣiṇā (honorarium),44, 49, 119, 124
Dancing Śiva festival,38, 51, 111, 122
procedures for,128–132
daṇḍa-bhaṅgi (stick method),97, 130
Darasuram,20–21, 22
darbhakūrcha (bundle of darbha grass),69, 81
deśika (guide),22, 82 see ācārya
Devadāsīs (female temple servants),46
Devī (the Goddess),50, 88
Devotees,31, 65, 101, 107, 111, 141
festival of,35, 134–136
dhūpa-dīpa (incense and lamp),81
dhvajārohana (flag-raising ceremony),30, 61–63, 121
procedures for,78–83
dhvajastambha (flagpole),81 see Flagpole
dhvajāvarohana (flag-lowering ceremony),30, 34, 61–62, 117
procedures for,120–122
dīkṣā (initiation),22, 43, 79
(p.187) dinādhipa (daily presiding deities),33, 42, 104–105
chart of,102
divyadeha (divine body),75
ḍolotsava (swing festival),28
Door-guardians (group of seven deities),96
drummer,27, 30–31, 46–47
dundhubi (type of drum),47, 70, 87
Durgā,54, 86, 105, 118
Durvāsas,9, 21
festival (utsava), definition and types of,24–29
as a meta-performance,35
fetters (mala, karman, māyeya),129
flag (dhvaja),30, 64, 73
flagpole (dhvajastambha),30, 38, 42
acquisition of,67–68
preparation of,68–69, 81–82
meditation on,80–81
gadya-padya (prose and verse compostions),88, 121
Gaṇas (Śiva's troops, group of eighteen),42, 86–87, 88, 118
Gaṇeśa,5, 27, 28, 31, 36, 40, 41, 43, 54, 70, 79, 84, 86, 95–97, 100, 104–105, 107, 111, 125, 127, 129, 133, 141, 143–144
festival of,34, 40, 65–66, 133
Gaṇeśvaras (group of eight divinities),42, 87, 95–96, 98, 107
garbhagṛha (temple sanctum),37
GĀYATRĪ mantra,74–75, 80, 120
ghaṭasnāna (bath with pots),33, 61–62, 119–120
Goddess,111, 122, 127
festival of,35, 41, 133–134, 136
forms of,41
shrines of,19, 20
visualization of,97–97
golaka (linga-covering),27
gopuram (temple entry tower),20, 68
Gotrasantati,6, 9
guru (teacher),22
homa (fire rite),74, 81, 119
homarakṣā (fire protection),99
HṚDAYA (heart) mantra,95, 101, 125, 127, 131
inaugural rites,30–31
Indra,36, 41, 42, 72, 89–91, 104–105
Indra-vimāna (shrine-like vehicle),133–134
Īśāna (World-guardian),42, 73, 90–91, 95, 134
Īśvara,105
jalādhivāsa (dwelling in water),75
jalakrīḍā (water entertainment),120
Janaki, S. S.,4, 7, 23
japa (recitation of mantras),45, 98
japin (mantra reciter),45
jivanyāsa (impostion of the living spirit),75–77
jñāna,11
Jyeṣṭhā,84, 86
Jyotiḥśāstras,48
Kacchapeśvara,6, 7
kāhalī (type of horn),82
kalās, four,42, 95
five,85, 97
thirty-one,121–122, 130
thirty-eight,81
kalā-bhaṅgi (97)
Kāma,54, 84, 86
kartṛ (agent),48, 64
Kātyāyanī,84, 86
kautuka (protective thread),61–62, 68 see also rakṣasūtra
KAVACA (armor) mantra,78, 125, 127, 129
kheṭaka (shield-like platform vehicle),79, 107
Kirāta (Śiva as Mountain Hunter),38, 111
kolam (auspicious design),65
kriyā,12, 13
Kriyākramadyotikā,5, 6–9, 14, 21–22, 26
kṛṣṇagandha (black balm),111, 128–131
Kubera,73, 90–91
Kulottunga I,18, 19
(p.188) Kulottunga II,18, 19
kuṇḍa (fire pit),92
Lakṣmī or Mahālakṣmī,43, 65, 86, 95, 97, 105, 133
Lakuliśa,100
layāṅga (integral position),122
liṅgapratiṣṭhā (establishment of the Śiva-liṅga),44, 64, 67, 68, 75–77
Lokapālas,see World-guardians
madhutraya (three sweets),129
Mahā-kriyākramadyotikā,7–9
Mahāpadma,87
mahāpīṭha (main altar),68
Mahāśaivas,51, 108–109
Maheśvara (Śiva as the Great Lord),36, 129–130
Maheśvaras,51, 70, 109
mahotsava (great festival),3, 5, 22, 25–26, 29, 37
description and history of,15–17
participants in,35–52
structure of,29–35
types of,61–63
Mahotsavavidhi,3, 5, 6–9, 17, 21–24, 29
translation of,13–14
Mahotsavavidhikrama Āgamaśekhara,5, 6, 14, 35
maṇḍapa (pillared hall),20, 65
Manonmanī,42, 113–114, 117–118, 133, 137
māsotsava (monthly festival),25, 27, 138–141
matsyalīlā (fishing festival),28
mauktigrahaṇa (festival of gathering pearls),28
maunabali (silent tribute), or maunotsava (silent procession),34, 62, 121
modaka (sweet rice balls),66, 70
Moon,39, 42, 69, 70, 71, 81, 87–88, 126
Mothers (saptamātṛkā), group of seven deities,42, 54, 84, 86, 87–88
Mount Kailasa,52, 57
Mount Meru,42, 57, 115
mṛgayātrā (hunting expedition),32, 110–111
mṛtsangrahana (gathering earth),30, 51, 70
muhūrta (auspicious moment),48, 74
MŪLA (root) mantra,77, 81, 95, 98, 100, 108, 120, 125, 129, 131, 133
muṇḍa-bhaṅgi (bald-head method),97, 130
mūrti (manifest form),35, 75
murtipa (image-protector, assisting priest),44, 51, 82, 98, 119, 131
musicians,46–47
nāda (primordial sound),88
Nāgas (group of eight divine snakes),42, 87–88, 101, 126
naivedya (food offerings),81
nakṣatra (constellation, lunar mansion),27, 29, 48, 144
determination of,63–64
Nandin,27, 30, 31, 40–41, 50, 53, 56, 65, 79–80, 81, 82, 88–89, 95, 96, 107, 111, 121, 127
festival of,61, 71–78
Nandins (group of eight deities),42, 72, 76, 79, 82, 121
nanditāla,30, 88
Naṭarāja (Śiva as Lord of Dance),36
at Chidambaram,18–20, 24
festival of,34, 128–132
images of,100, 109
visualization of,130
navasandhinṛtta (dance at the nine corners),30, 83, 89–91 see also bherītāḍaṇa
nāyanmārs (Śaiva devotional saints),18, 107–108, 116, 134–135
netronmilana (opening of the eyes),48, 74–75
nidrākumbha (sleep pot),75
nīrājana or nīrāñjana (illumination ceremony),28, 32, 46, 51, 61–62, 91, 122, 141
procedures for,111–113
Nirmalamaṇi of Tiruvarur,6–9, 22
nirodhana (protective encirclement),67
Nirṛti,42, 72, 90–91
(p.189) nityahoma (daily fire-sacrifice),7, 98
nityakarman (daily rites),7, 22, 26, 78, 93, 96, 100
nityapūjā (daily worship),7, 26, 36, 76, 82, 98, 106–107, 112, 113, 115, 120–123, 124
nityotsava (daily festival),25, 26–27
nṛtta (dance),82, 89–91
nyāsa (imposition of mantras),72, 76, 126
oṣadhi-sūkta (hymn to the plants),71
Oṭṭakkūttar,19–20
pāda (word),85
Paddhati,3, 21, 23
paduka (Śiva's sandals),27
pakṣotsava (fortnightly festival),25, 27, 28, 141–144
Pallava dynasty,16
paṇ (musical mode),89–91
pañcagavya (five cow-products),65, 74–75
pañcakṛtya (five fundamental activities),137–138
pañcamahāśabda (five great sounds),47, 89
pañcāmṛta (five nectars),75
pañcāvaraṇa (five entourages),98
Pandya dynasty,16
paramaśāyin (design),92, 94
parārtha (on behalf of others),13, 18, 26, 44
Parameśvarī (Goddess in Supreme Form),122, 130–131, 133
Parāśakti (Highest Śakti),81, 133
paricāraka (temple attendant),48–49, 70, 82, 95, 104, 116, 119, 124
pariveṣa (circling of light),91
pariveṣaṇa (perambulation),32, 61–62, 110, 128
parvan (juncture),63
Pārvatī,31, 36, 53, 84–85, 106, 131
paśu (bound soul),138
Paśupati (Śiva as Lord of All Creatures),26, 36
meditation on,103
paurṇamāsotsava (full-moon festival),27, 141, 143–144
Periya Purāṇam of Cēkkilār,18, 52–53
pīṭha (pedestal),80
Planets (group of seven or nine),42, 87, 131
pradakṣiṇa (circumambulation),26, 31, 56, 66
praṇaya-kalaha (lovers' quarrel),132, 134
prapā (temporary pavilion),65, 118
pratiṣṭhā (establishment),8, 37, 68, 71, 92, 103, 106, 127, 136
prāyaścitta (expiation),82, 98–99, 136
Preceptors (group of seven),43, 95, 97
priest,38, 43–44, 51
ascetic observances of,61–62
festival of,34, 44
images of,20–21
procession,14, 19, 24, 28
in Ādiyulā,52–57
in mahotsava,31–32, 50–51, 106–112
in nityotsava,26–27
puṇyāha-jala (auspicious day water),126
puṇyāhavācana (declaration of auspicious day),66
pūrṇāhuti (complete oblation),77, 98–99
rāga (melody),89–91
rājan (king),49, 51, 108–109, 131, 134
Rājarāja II,3, 18, 19
rakṣabandhana (tying on protective wristlets),50, 100–101
Rākṣasa,54
rakṣasūtra (protective wristlet),31, 50, 68, 124–125, 128, 133
rite of tying,100–101
rāśi (sign of the zodiac),127, 138
ratha (chariot),65–66, 107, 124–128
ratha-kumbha (chariot-pot),124–126
ratha-mārga (chariot street),127
ratha-yātrā (chariot procession),16, 32, 124
Rivers (group of eight divinities),42, 113–114, 117–118
ṛkṣa (lunar mansion),64, 144
ṛkṣotsava (festival with alignment of stars),25, 27, 144–146
(p.190) ṛtvij (assisting priest),44, 96, 100–101, 116, 124
Rudra,42, 68, 76, 78, 87, 100, 105, 115
Rudras (group of eleven),86–87, 93, 118
Rudras (group of one hundred),126
Rudragaṇikās (female temple dancers),32, 46–47, 51, 70, 89, 108, 110–111, 113, 116, 124, 128
ṣaḍadhvan (six paths),85, 97, 120, 121
Sadāśiva,12, 35–36, 75, 100, 103–105, 113, 126, 133
imposed on flagpole,67, 80–81, 121
visualization of,127
Sādhaka (Śaiva adept),51, 82, 124, 131, 134
sādhakābhiṣeka,51
ṣaḍutthāsana, (sixfold throne),72, 75, 100
Śailādi,31, 107, 111
Śaiva brāhmaṇa,13, 21, 51
Śaiva Siddhānta,10, 13, 14, 20, 21, 23, 26, 35–37, 43, 57, 76, 88, 129, 137–138
sakalīkaraṇa (imposition of mantras onto body),78, 113, 115
Śaktis (energies of Śiva),35, 36, 76
from Śakti to Śakti,80–81, 121, 130
group of eight,113
three forms of,133,
three principal Śaktis,39, 69, 81
Śakti-pot (vardhanī),95, 97
sāmānyārghya (ordinary reception water),78, 96
samayadīkṣā (common Śaiva initiation),51, 134
samhāra (destruction),35, 137–138
samhitāmantras,85
sandhyāvāhana (evening invocation),88–89
saṅkrānti (solar transition),27, 64, 138–139
śānti (pacification rites),82, 136–137
śāntihoma (pacifying fire-rites),82, 136–137
śāntikumbha (pot of pacifying water),77–78, 129
Sarasvatī,105
śibika (palanquin),66, 107
Śilpaśāstra,14, 48, 67
śilpin (artisan),47–48, 67–68, 71, 74–75, 125–126, 128
Śiva,18–19, 24, 26, 77–78
forms of,37–40, 76–77, 137
icons of,65
theological character of,35–37, 53, 56
Śiva-Agni,40, 98–99
śivahasta (hand of Śiva),124–125
Śivakāmī (Goddess as Śiva's Beloved),41, 128–129, 131
śivakumbha (Śiva-pot),39–40, 95, 97, 119
Śiva-liṅga,26, 28, 34, 36, 37, 40, 72, 100–101, 106, 113, 116, 119–121, 130–131, 141, 143
forms of,38–39, 80 see also annaliṅga
Śivapuram,52, 57–58
Skanda,31, 36, 40, 41, 42, 50, 54, 65, 84, 86, 87–88, 100, 106–107, 111, 122, 126, 127, 133
snāna-maṇḍapa, (bathing pavilion),68
snāpana (bath ceremony),28, 61–62, 141, 144
Somāskanda (Śiva seated with Umā and Skanda),28, 31, 37, 50, 88, 100, 106–107, 109, 111, 113, 116–117, 121, 141, 146
meditation on,121–122
Śrīkaṇṭha,76, 97
impostion of,97, 120, 121–122, 130
sṛṣṭi (creation),35, 137–138
sthaṇḍila (ritual platform),68, 74–75, 79, 84, 100, 113, 118, 123, 129, 137
sthiti (maintenance),35, 137–138
śuddhanṛtta (pure dance),46, 82–83, 89, 132
Sun (sūrya),39, 42, 69, 81, 84, 86, 87–88, 95–96, 126
sūryapūjā (worship of the Sun),7, 96
suvāsinī (married woman of good home),51, 111, 113, 133
Takṣa (divine snake),39, 81, 101
tāla (rhythm),89–91
(p.191) tattvas, three groups,68–69, 76–78, 84–85, 100, 113
thirty-six,68, 76
tauryatrika (triple symphony),46, 66, 123, 128
tirobhāva (veiling),35, 137–138
tīrthasamgrahaṇa (collection of holy water),61–62, 113–114, 118
tīrthasnāna (final bathing rite),33, 61–62, 117–119, 132
calculation of,63–64
tīrthayātrā (pilgrimage),33
Tirukkayilāyañānavulā,52
tithi (lunar day),64
Trident (triśula),27, 38, 40, 42, 65–66, 79–80, 89, 99, 101, 104, 113, 115–118, 121–122
ceremony for,33, 49, 119
imposition of deities onto,84–86
Tripurantaka (Śiva as Conqueror of the Triple City),36, 38, 111
TRYAMBAKA mantra,88, 100–101
uccāraṇa (ascending pronunciation),77
ulā (procession poem),19–20, 52
Umā,40, 41
Umāmāheśvara (Śiva seated with Umā),27
Umāpati,24–25, 31, 78
upacāras (services of worship),77, 107, 115, 121, 125, 128
list of five,98
list of sixteen,81–82
uṣṇīṣa (turban),48, 79
utsava (festival),25
types of,25–29
vādya (musical instrument),89–91
vāhana (vehicles),15, 17, 32, 65, 109, 133
schedules of,108, 135, 136
vaivāha (marriage ceremony),34, 51, 61–62
procedures for,132–133
vardhanī (Śakti-pot),39–40, 95, 119–120
varotsava (weekly festival),25, 27, 146
Varuṇa,42, 53, 72, 90–91
vāstumaṇḍala,39, 92
vāstuśānti (pacification of the site),42, 92
Vasus (group of eight deities),86, 93, 118
Vāsuki,42, 87–88, 100–101
Vāyu,42, 53, 73, 81, 90–91
vedikā (altar),39, 68, 80–81, 92
vidhi (rule, prescription),3, 13, 23
vidyādeha (body of mantras),75, 78, 81, 96, 121
Vidyādharas,54
Vidyeśvaras (group of eight divinities),40, 42, 93, 95–96, 98, 113, 115, 119–120
Vikrama Chola,18, 19
vinoda (entertainments),47, 129, 134
Vīraśakti,41, 133
Vīraśāsta,65
visarjana (dismissal),82
viśeṣabali (special tribute),91, 105
Viṣṇu,42, 53, 73, 87–88, 100, 104–105, 126
as lord of tattva group,68, 76, 77–78
vṛṣavādya or vṛṣanāla (bull-roarer, instrument),70, 82
vṛṣayāga (Sacrifice to the Bull),61–62, 71–78
vyāhṛtis,99, 125, 129
VYOMAVYĀPIN mantra,85, 116
Weapons (āyudha),95, 98, 101, 104, 117
World-guardians (Lokapālas),33, 41–42, 43, 46–47, 84, 88, 89–91, 93, 95–98, 101, 115, 118, 122, 126
yāgaśālā or yāgamaṇḍapa (sacrificial pavilion),32, 39, 42, 70, 113, 119, 123, 124–125
worship of,61–62, 91–93
Yāgeśvara (Śiva as Lord of the Sacrifice),39, 41, 95, 120, 125
Yāgeśvarī (consort of Yāgeśvara),39, 41, 95
yajamāna (Patron),49, 96, 116, 124, 134
Yakṣas,54, 129
Yama,42, 53, 72, 90–91
yānakrama (order of processions),61–62
yātrā (journey, procession),31, 80, 117
yātrādāna (gift at outset of journey),80