This chapter gives some background to the debate about teaching evolution in public schools and discusses some key legal cases. It examines political versus scientific control over science education, arguing that the government should have oversight over science education but that it should not micromanage the science curriculum. One implication of this view is that the laypeople and politicians should not decide whether science teachers should teach evolution in K‐12 public schools. Rather, this decision should be left to scientists and science educators. Though the government can teach values in public schools, these values should be taught in classes that are oriented toward humanistic education, such as language arts, social studies, history, and the fine arts.
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