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Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok$

Elliot Antokoletz

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195365825

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001

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(p.341) Index

(p.341) Index

Source:
Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Academy of Music (Budapest), 14
Adorno, Theodor W., 12, 182, 292
Ady, Endre, 10, 238, 252
Aeschylus, 264
Choephori of, 328 n11
animal magnetism, 88, 313 n11. See also consciousness, altered states of
Antokoletz, Elliott, 291, 300 n5
Arcadia, 105
Aristotelian logic, 292
axis of symmetry, 19, 63, 66, 71, 98, 136, 149, 159, 216, 229, 232. See also symmetrical pitch constructions and relations
Balázs, Béla, 4, 7, 31, 43, 44, 45, 47, 52, 183, 187, 238, 251, 292, 293, 302 n1, 302 n3, 330 n8
“ballad of inner life,”, 44
Bluebeard mystery play, 6, 7, 8, 27, 32, 43, 48, 50–53, 182, 183, 184, 196, 238, 259
Don Juan and Bluebeard play, 43, 51
on men and women, 44, 45
political exile of, 306 n66
view of women, 44, 46, 189, 190, 243–244, 297 n7
Banks, Paul, 187, 200
Bartók, Béla, 4, 15, 22, 24, 31, 43, 47, 52, 184, 185, 198–199, 234, 291
ambivalence regarding gender relation of power, 234
and atheism, 197, 199, 322 n58
and the Catholic Church, 197
diatonic extension in range of chromatic themes and chromatic compression of diatonic themes, 121
Concerto for Orchestra, 322 n62
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, op. posth., 25, 184, 196, 199, 210, 211, 212
Contrasts, 218
Duke Bluebeard's Castle, 4, 8, 16, 22, 24, 30, 42, 46–50, 121, 182–261: autobiographical perspective, 50–52
Eight Hungarian Folksongs, 214–215
Fifth String Quartet, 25, 221
First Sonata for violin and piano, 222, 223
First String Quartet, 25, 210
Four Dirges for Piano, op. 8b, 198
Fourteen Bagatelles for Piano, op. 6, 196, 199, 211, 212
on men and women, 198, 234, 252, 253
Miraculous Mandarin, 252, 253
mother of, 213, 234
on Nietzsche, 238
Quatre nénies, op. 9a, 14
Sonata for piano, 214
on suicide, 252
Three Studies, op. 18, for piano, 25
Two Portraits for Orchestra, op. 5, 184, 196, 199, 212
Two Romanian Dances, op. 8a, 212
on women, 244, 297 n7
Bauer, Herbert, 44, 45. See also Balázs, Béla
Bauer, Simon, 44
(p.342) Bäumer, Angelica, 190
Beaunier, André, 11
Beethoven, Ludwig van, use of “expressive doubling” in Scherzi of Fifth Symphony and String Quartet, op. 74 (“Harp”), 115
Bellini, Vincenzo, Norma, 15
Benjamin, Jessica, 32, 48, 54
Berg, Alban, 15, 280
Lulu, 181
Three Orchestral Pieces, op. 14, 279
Wozzeck, 181, 263, 279–290
Berlioz, Hector, 16
Francs-Juges Overture, 312 n2
Bismarck, Otto Edouard Leopold von, 60
Blake, William, use of “expressive doubling” in Songs of Innocence and Experience, 115
Brahms, Johannes, 262
Breuer, Josef, 3, 6, 46
Bruckner, Anton, 262, 263
Büchner, Georg, Woyzeck, 279, 280
Budapest Bartók Archívum, Bartók's personal library in, 14
Capellen, Georg, 312 n1
Carré, Albert. See Paris, Opéra-Comique
cell[s], pitch- or intervallic, 22–23, 29, 122, 138
definition of, 301 n17
inversionally related, 22–23
chain of thirds, 24–27, 221–223
characterization, final musical transformation of, 248–250
Charcot, Jean-Martin, 5, 6, 46, 88, 327 n1
Chausson, Ernest, 101
Chekhov, Anton, 7
Chodorow, Nancy, 32
Chopin, Frédérik, 16
chromatic compression
of diatonic themes or constructions, 24, 121, 131, 200, 204–205, 209, 210, 214, 223–224, 250, 323 n4
of whole-tone to octatonic or chromatic, 222, 131–133, 165–168, 201, 227 (see also diatonic extension in range of chromatic themes)
chromatic saturation, 124, 220. See also Wenk, Arthur B.
composers, French, Russian, and Hungarian, 17, 18
Comte, Auguste, 5
Positivist philosophy of, 5, 297 n24, 327 n1
conscious (mind), 57, 80, 94, 95, 126, 149, 330 n4
consciousness, 89, 91, 173, 213
altered states of, 313 n11
Crawford, Dorothy Lamb, on Bartók's view of suicide, 252
Cross, Anthony, 15
crucifixion, symbol of, 147, 150, 152, 153, 154, 156, 316 n7
cycles, interval. See interval cycle[s]
Dalmatia, 210
Darwin, Charles, 3
theory of evolution of, 3
death wish. See instinct, death
Debussy, Claude, 4, 15, 20, 22, 31, 58, 61, 291
cathédral engloutie, La, 125
Images I and II, 14
L’isle joyeux, 14
Nocturnes, 17, 68
Pelléas et Mélisande, 4, 8, 9, 16, 24, 68, 55–181, 182, 188, 190, 192
Pour le piano, 14
Prélude à l’aprés midi d’un faune, 68
Préludes I, 14
String Quartet, 14, 68
Syrinx, 105
on women, 37–38
developing variation, 279
diatonic extension in range, of chromatic themes or constructions, 24, 121, 167, 210, 223, 234. See also chromatic compression of diatonic themes or constructions
diatonic saturation, 124. See also Wenk, Arthur B.
dodecaphonic series, 24, 218. See also twelve-tone language
dominant-ninth chord, 18, 19, 84–116
drame lyrique, 9
Dreyfus, Alfred, 60
movement, 302 n3
Dukas, Paul, 9, 187
Ariane et Barbe-Bleue, 187, 188, 190, 249
Emmanuel, Maurice, 56
equal-division system, 17
Eulenberg, H., Ritter Blaubart, 249
Euripedes, 264, 328 n11
Elektra, 328 n11
Eve's nature, passion of, 248
(p.343) Exposition Universelle (1889). See Paris, Exposition Universelle
Expressionism, 278–279, 290
expressive doubling, definition of, 115, 128
fate, 3, 7, 23, 30, 38, 56, 62, 64–65, 67, 74, 76, 84, 94, 100, 104, 129, 135, 147–148, 152, 159–160, 173, 180
circle of light as symbol of, 101
circuity of, 173–181
Maeterlinck's view of, 64–65, 95
notion of (equivalent to unconscious), 313 n16
submission to, 104, 169, 207
Fauré, Gabriel, 10, 55–83
feminist view, 48–52, 187
movement, 188
femme fatale, 230. See also siren of destruction
Flaubert, Gustave
Hérodias, 249
Madame Bovary, 249
folk modalities, pentatonic-diatonic, 15, 16, 17
folk-music sources, from borderlands of Western culture, 15
Fourcaud, M., 9, 126
France, Anatole, Les sept femmes de la Barbe-Bleue, 249
Franco-Prussian War (1871), 60
free-atonality, 278
Freikorps, 31, 32
French Impressionists, 18
Freud, Sigmund, 3, 6, 7, 31, 36, 46, 88, 89, 256, 278, 279, 292, 327 n1
Interpretation of Dreams, 8
Studien über Hysterie, 262
theory of psychoanalysis, 262, 303 n7, 326 n8
Vienna of, 262
Frigyesi, Judit, 46, 47, 182, 208, 211, 212, 238
Gesamtkunstwerk, 9
Geyer, Stefi, 46, 47, 184, 185, 196–199, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 234, 253, 258, 260, 261, 322 n58, 323 n8, 323 n19, 324 n23
Gilman, Lawrence, 59
“Fate” motif of, 58
Giovacchini, Peter L., 185, 256
summary of Freud's hypothesis by, 256
Glinka, Mikhail, 16, 312 n2
Golden Section proportions, 157–158, 236, 316 n12, 325 n11
Grant, Julian, 187
Grayson, David, 179, 180, 181, 314 n2
Grinstein, Alexander
on patients contemplating suicide in dreams, 252
on “Death Symbols,” 253, 257–258
Gruber, Emma, 43, 238
Guiraud, Ernest, 56
Halls, W. D., 40
Hebbel, Friedrich, 8, 48
Judith, 8, 47, 52, 189, 249
Heller, Agnes, 51
Hlaváček, Karel, 11
Hoffmann, E. T. A., use of expressive doubling by in The Golden Pot, 115
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 7, 262, 263, 264
Howat, Roy, on Debussy's use of Golden Section proportions, 157–158
Hungarian linguistic syntax, archaic, 191–193, 194–195, 244–245
isometric stanzaic structure, 244
octosyllabic phrase construction, 221, 244–246
quaternary stanzaic structure of, 236
hysteria, 5, 6
Ibsen, Henryk, 7
Impressionism, 4
aesthetics of, 68
French Impressionist painting, 67
instinct
death, 89, 251–256, 259
definition of, 313 n16
sexual, 251, 256
instrumental timbre, as signifier, 56, 61, 71–72, 86–88, 120, 121, 135, 137, 141, 152–153, 161. See also Wenk, Arthur B.
interval cycle[s], 17, 18–21, 23–27, 57, 124, 138, 282–287, 289, 301 n20
definition of, 299 n47
total complex of, 23, 301 n21
interval-ratio, 24–27, 66, 191, 200–202, 203, 214, 240, 250
definition of, 301 n23
Irigaray, Luce, 48
isometric stanzaic structure. See Hungarian linguistic syntax, archaic
Janet, Pierre, 3, 6, 31, 46, 327 n1
development of “psychological analysis,” 6
Jarman, Douglas, on Wozzeck, 281
(p.344) Joyce, James, 7, 181
Jungian dream symbolism, 47
Jurkovics, Irmy, 234, 235
Kafka, Franz, 181
Kahane, Claire, 48, 52
Kárpáti, János, 24, 25, 211, 218, 221, 222, 223
Kernberg, Otto, 48
Klimt, Gustav, 189
Judith and Holofernes, 189
Kodály, Zoltán, 14, 43, 184, 185, 238
Kohut, Heinz, 185
Kramer, Lawrence, 115, 128
definition of expressive doubling, 115, 128
Kretschmer, Ernst, theory of personality typology, 185
Kristeva, Julia, 54
Kroó, György, 212, 248
Laforgue, Jules
musical ideas of, 314 n36
Pan et la Syrinx, 314 n36
Layton, Lynne, 32
Leafstedt, Carl, 47, 212, 233
Leblanc, Georgette, 37
leitmotif, 10, 56, 57, 58–59, 186, 264, 289, 302 n26, 309 n8, 309 n10, 310 n15
of Stefi Geyer, 197, 208, 209, 210, 220, 226, 259, 260
leit-sound, 56, 121
Lendvai, Ernoű, 25, 316 n12
Golden Section, 302 n24, 316 n12
polar-axis system or principle, 212, 323 n14
Lerolle, Henri, 99
Lisak, David, 32
Liszt, Franz, 16
Lockspeiser, Edward, 181
Lőcse, 45
Lukács, György, 8, 43, 45, 46, 47, 51, 52, 238, 252, 293, 330 n8
view of women, 46, 297 n7
Maeterlinck, Maurice, 4, 94, 292
Ariane et Barbe-Bleue, 60, 188, 189, 249
on catastrophe, 100
Catholic upbringing of, 35
on cross correspondence, 117, 118
depression of, 35
on fate, 95, 104
insight of, 40, 77, 147–148, 156, 158
Pelléas et Mélisande play, 4, 9, 27, 30, 32, 60, 117, 182
symbolist message of, 73, 173
“The Tragical in Daily Life,” 80
Treasure of the Humble, 101
on women, 4, 65, 93, 95, 302 n2
Mahler, Gustav, 262, 263
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 8, 9, 11
Marks, Lawrence E., “the Doctrine of Equivalent Information,” 8
Marschner, Heinrich, 10
Matte-Blanco, Ignacio, 55, 292
symmetrical relationships, 55, 94, 292
Mélusine, 105, 189, 314 n37
Mesmer, Franz Anton, 313 n11
Mockel, Albert, 40
modernist conception
definition of, 3
gender and power in, 188–190
modernity, reflections on, 53–54, 308 n107
modes and scales
Chinese, 68
Javanese, 68
North African, 68
Mordden, Ethan, 278
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 61
Mukaŕovsky, Jan, 11
Mussorgsky, Modest, 18, 22
Boris Godunov, 18, 68
Napoleon III, defeat of, 60
narcissistic defenses
definition of, 31
entitlement, 50
pathology, 303 n9
psycho-dynamic qualities of, 53, 182, 185
Nichols, Roger, 72
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 10, 46, 184, 189, 197, 211, 234–235, 238, 246, 257, 259–261
conception of man's “Will to Power,” 259
on independence, 237–238, 246–247
on love between men and women, 257
on women, 245
Zarathustra, 189, 210, 235, 261
Nietzschean condition, 234–236, 257
octosyllabic phrase construction. See Hungarian linguistic syntax, archaic
Oedipal principle, 264
Offenbach, Jacques, comic opera of, 249
Opéra-Comique. See Paris, Opéra-Comique
Pan, 105, 314 n36, 314 n37
panpipe, 105
(p.345) Pappenheim, Marie, 189, 279
Erwartung, 189
Paris
Conservatory, 56
Exposition Universelle, 68
Opéra-Comique, 156
parlando rubato, 15, 16, 192, 244
Pásztory, Ditta, 184, 197
pentatonic/diatonic and whole-tone spheres, synthesis of, 248
Perle, George, on Wozzeck, 281
Perrault, Charles, 1697 tale by, 183, 249, 257
Histoires ou Contes du Temps passé, avec des Moralités, 249
Little Red Riding Hood, 45
Pethoű, Bertalan
on Bartók and personality types, 184–185, 213
on Bartók and women, 213
pleasure-principle, 89
Poe, Edgar Allen, Maeterlinck influenced by, 316 n18
polar-axis system or principle. See Lendvai, Ernoű
political symbol, Golaud as, 60, 156, 177
polymodal chromaticism or combination, 191, 194, 214–215, 219, 324 n29
polytonality, pseudo- or quasi-, 271, 272
Pór, Péter, 10
Positivist philosophy, 5, 12, 327 n1. See also Comte, Auguste
post-traumatic stress disorder, 5
proportional structure, geometrically expanding, 236. See also Golden Section proportions
psychoanalysis, 6, 11, 31, 262–263, 303 n10
psychodynamic psychology, 31
Puccini, Giacomo, 10
quaternary stanzaic structure. See Hungarian linguistic syntax, archaic
recitative opera, 28, 192. See also parlando rubato
Régnier, Henri de, 11
Reiff, Philip, 46
Reinhardt, Max, 189, 262
repetition-compulsion, 89
Reznicek, E., after Eulenberg's Ritter Blaubart, 249
Rimsky-Korsakov, Nicolay, 187
Russian nationalists, 15, 18, 20
Saint-Denis, Marquis Marie-Jean-Leon de Hervey de, 7
Salome, 189, 249
Salpetrière, 5, 6, 88
scale formations, new kinds of (pentatonic- diatonic, whole-tone, octatonic), 15
Schmalfeldt, Janet, on Wozzeck, 281
Schneider, Marcel, 7, 10
Schnitzler, Arthur, 7, 262
Schoenberg, Arnold, 10, 15, 20, 84, 85, 187, 262
Erwartung, 189, 263, 278–279, 320 n38
Four Orchestral Songs, op. 22, 279
Glückliche Hand, Die, 187, 279
Harmonielehre, 21, 84, 85
Herzgewächse, 279
Pelleas und Melisande, 85
Pierrot Lunaire, op. 21, 279
Sechs kleine Klavierstücke, op. 19, 279
use of whole-tone scale, 85
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 211
Schroeder, Hermann, 312 n1
Schubert, Franz, 16, 312 n2
Mass in E-Flat, 312 n2
Scott, Cyril, 10
Scriabin, Alexander, 15, 187
Prometheus, 187
Seidler, Irma, 46, 51, 308 n98, 308 n101, 308 n103
sets, interaction of pentatonic, diatonic, whole-tone, and octatonic, 22–23
sexual wishes, gratification of and death, 253. See also instinct, sexual
Sibelius, Jean, 10
signs, natural and conventional, 12, 300 n58
siren of destruction, 38, 93, 95, 111, 189, 190
Smith, Richard Langham, 11, 80, 151, 163, 165, 180
Socialist ideology, 13
interest in by some Symbolist writers, 13
Socrates, 293
Sophocles, Elektra, 263, 264
Stern, Daniel, 8, 32
Strauss, Richard, 14, 262
Ariadne auf Naxos, 263
Elektra, 14, 262–278:
continuous inner action of Wagner in, 264;
leitmotifs in, 328 n13
Rosenkavalier, Der, 263
Salome, 47
Zarathustra, 210
(p.346) Stravinsky, Igor, 15
Strindberg, August, 7
Symbolism, definition of, 11
symmetrical pitch constructions and relations, 16, 17, 18–22, 55–57, 59, 132, 263, 264, 265–271, 273–274, 292, 309 n1, 312 n1, 324 n26, 330 n4
definition of, 300 n8
derived by French, Russian, and Hungarian composers, 17, 18–21
polymodal chromatic, 214–215, 292
transformation into, 4, 20, 56, 159
synesthesia, definition of, 8, 295 n4
Syrinx, 105, 314 n36
Szeged, 45, 307 n70
telepathy, 117–118
tempo giusto, 15
Teyte, Maggie, in early dramatic role of Mélisande, 39
Theweleit, Klaus, 31–32
Third Republic, 60
Toller, Ernst, 7
traditional harmonic functions or constructions (major-minor scale system), 4, 18, 22, 55, 75
symmetrical transformation of, 4, 159
trauma, 4, 30–54, 60, 174, 182
fate and, 34
personal and social factors in the development of, 30–31
psychological reconceptualizations of, 4–6
Turner, J. M. W., use of expressive doubling in Shade and Darkness—The Evening of the Deluge and Light and Color (Goethe's Theory)The Morning After the Deluge—Mosses [sic] Writing the Book of Genesis, 115
twelve-tone language, 16, 23–27
ultrachromaticism, 14, 18, 263
unconscious, the, 3, 30–54, 55, 57, 67, 80, 84, 89, 100, 117, 118, 126, 149, 173, 174, 182, 184, 300 n59, 313 n16, 316 n1, 330 n4
darkness of, 101, 140, 181
domination over conscious mind, 95, 262
laws of, 314 n38
motivation, 71, 182, 251, 252, 253, 257
music as encoder of, 89–95
power of, 88–89, 117
Van der Kolk, Bessel A., 5
Van Eeden, Frederik, The Bride of Dreams, 7
Verdi, Giuseppe, 15
Veress, Sándor, 186, 187–188, 248
Verlaine, Paul, 8, 9
Vienna, as seat of Austro-Hungarian Empire, 262
von der Nüll, Edwin, 25, 324 n29
Wagner, Richard, 8, 9, 10, 263
continuous inner action of, 264
Fliegender Holländer, Der, 10, 193
Gesamtkunstwerk of, 9
Lohengrin, 10
music dramas of, 58, 186
Rienzi, 10
Tannhäuser, 10
Tristan und Isolde, 7, 14, 58, 169, 181, 210, 279
Wagnerian formula, 57
Wagner-Strauss period, 14, 18, 184
Wassermann, Jacob, 7, 262
Weber, Carl Maria von, 10
Webern, Anton, 15
Wedekind, Frank, 189
Lulu, 189
Weininger, Otto, 188, 252
suicide of, 252
Wenk, Arthur B., 61, 82, 87, 124, 137, 141, 154, 160 167, 169, 180, 181
diatonic and chromatic saturation, 124, 125
Winnicott, Donald, 40
women, on, 188, 189, 252
Paul's dictum, 3 (see also Maeterlink, Maurice)
Woolf, Virginia, 181
World War I, 14, 184, 278, 290
Yeats, William Butler, 7
Ziegler, Márta, 46, 47, 184, 197, 323 n19
Ziehn, Bernard, 312 n1
Zola, Emile, 5
Zsuffa, Joseph, 51