Parkinson's Disease is associated with loss of brainstem dopaminergic neurons, and loss of dopaminergic innervation of basal ganglia and cortex. The most disabling clinical symptoms are slowness of movement and postural instability. Both in the clinical disorder, and in experimental models, dopaminergic deprivation leads to enhanced beta oscillations (~20 – 30 Hz) in motor and motor-related regions. Interestingly, beta oscillations occuring during cognitive tasks are associated with immobility. Beta oscillations can also be induced in vitro (Chapter 11).
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