Policy Calibration and Innovation Displacement
The TRIPS Agreement is entering its third phase. Phase I began with a well-documented push by the United States government to link intellectual property and trade rules in the World Trade Organization as part of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, which ended in April 1994. It was informed from the demanders' perspective by addition narratives. Phase II began just before the new millennium and was characterized initially by highly critical analyses of the TRIPS negotiation process, which was said to have been based on coercion of and/or ignorance by and/or a very bad “bargain” for the developing world. This Phase was informed by subtraction narratives: the lesser the impact of TRIPS, the better the situation of developing countries would be. Phase III is informed by calibration narratives. These include recognition that developing countries are very different and will need different TRIPS implementations, and evidence-based policy making.
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