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Synergy$
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Mark L. Latash

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195333169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.001.0001

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Models and Beyond Motor Synergies

Models and Beyond Motor Synergies

Chapter:
(p.321) Part Eight Models and Beyond Motor Synergies
Source:
Synergy
Author(s):

Mark L. Latash (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0008

The final part of the book addresses two issues: modeling of synergies and possible synergic organization of non-motor functions such as the language and the sensory function. Within the first issue, relations of synergies to the control theory is discussed with a brief overview of the central issues of the control theory such as open-loop and closed-loop control, and optimal control. Two models of synergies are described in more detail. One of them offers a neural network with back-coupling loops as the mechanism for multi-digit synergies. The other one suggests a scheme within which synergies emerge without any explicit feedback mechanisms. Further, the focus shifts to two aspects of synergies within the equilibrium-point hypothesis. One of them suggests that the principle of equilibrium-point control can by itself lead to synergies. The other deals with possible synergies in the hierarchy of control variables within the reference configuration hypothesis. The next two sections in this Part develop the notion of synergies for the sensory systems and for the production of human language. Multi-sensory interactions and synesthesia are described as possible reflections of sensory synergies. The book ends with an overview of its main points and a list of unsolved problems.

Keywords:   control theory, neural networks, feedback control, feed-forward control, equilibrium-point hypothesis, sensory-motor interactions, sensory synergies, synesthesia, language

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