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Synergy$
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Mark L. Latash

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195333169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.001.0001

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Atypical, Suboptimal, and Changing Synergies

Atypical, Suboptimal, and Changing Synergies

Chapter:
(p.227) Part Six Atypical, Suboptimal, and Changing Synergies
Source:
Synergy
Author(s):

Mark L. Latash (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0006

The sixth part of the book reviews applications of the described approach to atypical and changing movements. It starts with a discussion of the notion of normality and its applicability to motor synergies. An argument is made that “normal synergies” do not exist. Further, plasticity within the central nervous system is discussed with a Digression on transcranial magnetic stimulation, a commonly used tool to study brain plasticity. The next three sections within this part deal with effects of healthy aging, atypical development (Down syndrome), and neurological disorder (stroke) on movement patterns and motor synergies. Finally, the effects of practice on motor synergies are discussed with examples that document two stages in motor learning, the creation and strengthening of appropriate synergies, and the apparent weakening of the synergies when movement patterns are optimized with respect to other factors such as energy expenditure, fatigue, esthetics, etc.

Keywords:   normality, plasticity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, aging, Down syndrome, stroke, motor learning

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