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Synergy$
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Mark L. Latash

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195333169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.001.0001

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Motor Variability: A Window into Synergies

Motor Variability: A Window into Synergies

Chapter:
(p.119) Part Four Motor Variability: A Window into Synergies
Source:
Synergy
Author(s):

Mark L. Latash (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0004

The fourth part of this book discusses motor variability as an important source of information on the functioning of the motor control system. Further, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is introduced as a computational framework that allows for the identification and quantification of synergies. The issue of elemental and performance variables is discussed and examples of non-trivial elemental variables are described such as force modes and muscle modes. The importance of knowing the Jacobian of the system is emphasized and methods of defining the Jacobian are reviewed. Relations of the introduced framework to the notion of movement stability is discussed. Further, other computational tools frequently used for analysis of synergies are described including the principal component analysis and analysis of surrogate data sets. Then, a hierarchical multi-level system of movement production is introduced that includes an explicit timing level and a synergy level. The notion of timing synergies is discussed with recent attempts of identifying timing synergies.

Keywords:   uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, motor variability, stability, modes, finger interaction, electromyography, principal component analysis, timing

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