This chapter reviews social scientific research on the relationship between judges' religion and their decisions. It begins with a historical perspective on the role of religion in judicial selection (e.g., Catholic and Jewish seats on the U.S. Supreme Court). Next it reviews research on the relationship between judges' religious beliefs and their decisions, in both trial and appellate courts, and describes cases in which judges have explicitly invoked religion in sentencing. Judges have done this, for example, in sentencing defendants to attend religious services or in quoting religious texts to justify a particular sentence.
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