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Developing Cross Cultural Measurement$
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Thanh V. Tran

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195325089

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325089.001.0001

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Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments

Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments

Chapter:
(p.31) 4 Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments
Source:
Developing Cross Cultural Measurement
Author(s):

Thanh V. Tran

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325089.003.0004

Both adopting and adapting existing research instruments often require the translation of the selected instrument from a source language to a target language. Cross-cultural translation is one of the major tasks in cross-cultural research. The task of translation becomes more challenging when an instrument is translated into two or more target languages simultaneously. The process of adopting and adapting existing research instruments involves (1) reviewing existing cross-cultural translation approaches and offering the reader practical guidelines; (2) employing a multilevel translation process encompassing back-translation, expert evaluation, cognitive interviews, focus group evaluation, and field evaluation; and (3) evaluating the translation of the adopted or adapted instruments.

Keywords:   cross-cultural translation, multilevel translation process, committee translation, translation evaluation, translation biases

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