This chapter focuses on the Darwinian view of human maternal investment which links evolved female reproductive interests and the dynamics of social groups. Parental investment can occur in different modes, time, energy, life risks, and different styles of parenting. It can be directed at very different developmental phases. This chapter concentrates on the postnatal maternal investment. In particular, it concentrates primarily on the phase of infancy, i.e., the first two years of infant's life. This is due to the fact that this time span is crucial for investment decisions with respect to the survival of the offspring. Moreover, it constitutes a brain imprint period with consequences for psychological development and thus adaptation.
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