This chapter describes calorimetry or the direct measurement of heat production, a technique first used by Lavoisier and Paulze for measuring metabolic rates. Bomb calorimetry — a technique for measuring the energy content of foods and other materials — is also described. The two most common applications of direct calorimetry — gradient and differential calorimetry — are analyzed. Methods for combining direct calorimetry with indirect calorimetry (or respirometry) and the compensating calculations that are required, are presented, together with a brief description of a basic direct calorimeter for small mammals that can be made from inexpensive and commonly available materials.
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