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Foundations of Environmental SustainabilityThe Coevolution of Science and Policy$

Larry Rockwood, Ronald Stewart, and Thomas Dietz

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195309454

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309454.001.0001

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(p.xi) Contributors

(p.xi) Contributors

Foundations of Environmental Sustainability
Oxford University Press

Charles Victor Barber is environmental advisor with the Office of Environment and Science Policy at the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), where he focuses on coordinating and enhancing the agency's participation in multilateral environmental conventions and processes related to biodiversity and natural resources. Prior to joining USAID, he worked as an independent consultant on environment and natural resources policy projects for the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, IUCN, the UN Environment Programme, the Nature Conservancy, and the UN University Institute of Advanced Studies. He has also served as a representative of the International Marinelife Alliance, as a senior research associate at the World Resources Institute, and as a consultant on forest and land use policy for the Ford Foundation and other organizations. A prolific author of works on conservation policy and resource management, Barber holds an M.A. in Asian studies, a Ph.D. in jurisprudence and social policy, and a J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.

Daniel B. Botkin is research professor in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and president of the nonprofit Center for the Study of the Environment. He was formerly a faculty member at George Mason University and Yale University and a scientist at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory. He is the author of numerous books, including No Man's Garden: Thoreau and a New Vision for Civilization and Nature (2000) and Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century (1990). Botkin received his B.A. in physics from the University of Rochester, his M.A. in English literature from the University of Wisconsin, and his Ph.D. in plant ecology from Rutgers University.

James A. Burchfield is associate dean of the College of Forestry and Conservation at the University of Montana. Prior to becoming associate dean, he served as director of the Bolle Center for People and Forests at the University of Montana. He has also worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service in several U.S. locations, conducted assessments of social conditions in the Columbia River basin, served in the international division of the Forest Service in Washington, D.C., and helped implement forest management operations for national forests in Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, and Washington. Burchfield's academic training was conducted at the University of Washington and the University of Michigan, where he received a (p.xii) Ph.D. His recent work examines the principles of social acceptability in forest management, the effects of wildfires on rural communities, and the implications of stewardship contracting on public lands.

Leif E. Christoffersen is senior fellow at the Agricultural University of Norway, chairman of the GRID-Arendal (UN Environment Programme) Foundation in Norway, board chairman of Scandinavian Seminar College, committee chairman of the Norwegian Research Council, and president of Christoffersen Associates. He has also spent twenty-eight years working with the World Bank, serving in positions including chief of the African Environment Division and personal assistant to the president. He received the St. Olav Medal in 2006 from Norway for his contributions to the environment. Christoffersen did his undergraduate work at the University of Edinburgh and received his M.A. and M.A.L.D. in international economics from Tufts University.

Jason Clay is senior vice president at the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. For over twenty years, he has worked with human rights and environmental organizations; he helped invent green marketing in the 1980s, and he also established a trading company that developed markets for rainforest products with nearly 200 U.S. and European companies. In 1999 Clay created the Shrimp Aquaculture and the Environment Consortium (World Wildlife Fund, World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific) to identify and analyze better management practices that address the environmental and social impacts of shrimp aquaculture. The founder and editor of Cultural Survival Quarterly, he studied anthropology and Latin American studies at Harvard University and economics and geography at the London School of Economics. He holds a Ph.D. in anthropology and international agriculture from Cornell University.

Megan M. Draheim received a B.A. in fine arts from George Washington University and is currently pursuing graduate work in environmental science and policy at George Mason University, where she received her M.S. in 2007. Her research involves the ecology of urban foxes and coyotes as well as human attitudes toward these animals.

Mohamed T. El-Ashry is former chairman and CEO (1991–2002) of the Global Environment Facility, also known as GEF. Under his leadership, the GEF grew from a pilot program with less than thirty members to the largest single source of funding for the global environment, with 173 member countries. Additionally, during his tenure, the GEF helped finance more than 1,000 environmental projects in over 140 countries. El-Ashry came to the GEF from the World Bank, where he was chief environmental advisor to the president as well as director of the environment department. Prior to joining the World Bank, he served as senior vice president of the World Resources Institute and as director of environmental quality for the Tennessee Valley Authority. He has received numerous international awards and honors and is the author of three books and more than 200 papers. El-Ashry received his B.S. from the University of Cairo and a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Illinois.

(p.xiii) Robert Goodland is former chief environmental advisor (1978–2001) to the World Bank Group. He has drafted, and persuaded the World Bank to adopt, most of its social and environmental safeguard policies. He has also served as chief environmental advisor (2001–2004) to the independent Extractive Industries Review of the World Bank Group. Goodland has authored or coauthored more than ten books, including The Social and Environmental Impacts of Oil and Gas Pipelines: Best Practice and State of the Art (2005). He holds a B.S. in biology and an M.S. and Ph.D. in ecology, all from McGill University.

Robert J. Hofman is former scientific program director (1975–2000) of the Marine Mammal Commission, a federal agency established by the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act to over-see all federal activities affecting the conservation and protection of marine mammals. In this position, he managed a small research program, organized workshops and reviews of other agencies' mammal research programs, facilitated commission reviews of domestic and international policies and programs affecting marine mammals, and represented the commission at both national and international meetings. Hofman received his B.S. and M.S. from Indiana University of Pennsylvania. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota, where he conducted dissertation research on the biology and ecology of Antarctic seals.

Sidney J. Holt served, and led, UN organizations for over twenty-five years. He was the first director of the International Ocean Institute at Malta, and he is a former advisor to the UN Environment Programme, former UN advisor on Mediterranean Marine Affairs, and former director of the Food and Agriculture Organization's Department of Fisheries. In addition, he has been a member of numerous university faculties and of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee and the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The founder and current executive director of the International League for the Protection of Cetaceans, Holt has written more than 400 works on marine mammals, international whaling, and sustainability. He received his university training at Reading University in England, where he earned a B.Sc. in botany, chemistry, and zoology and a D.Sc. in zoology.

Stephen R. Kellert is Tweedy/Ordway Professor of Social Ecology at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, where he also serves as codirector of the Hixon Center for Urban Ecology. His current projects include studies of basic values and perceptions relating to the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable environmental design, and biophilia. He has written and edited numerous books, including The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society (1995), The Biophilia Hypothesis (1995), and Kinship to Mastery: Biophilia in Human Evolution and Development (2003). He received his B.S. from Cornell University and his Ph.D. from Yale University.

Agnes Kiss joined the World Bank in 1985, working first in its Office of Environmental and Scientific Affairs and then in the African region. In Africa, she became interested in environmental policy and biodiversity conservation. She lived in Kenya for five years; during this time, she oversaw a major project that supported (p.xiv) Richard Leakey's efforts to establish the Kenya Wildlife Service and rehabilitate the country's national parks. Kiss is a prolific author not only of technical publications but also of environmental fiction books for children. She now works in the Sustainable Development Department for Europe and Central Asia at the World Bank. She holds an M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.

Gene E. Likens retired in 2007 as director of the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York. He has been a faculty member at Yale University; Cornell University; the University at Albany, State University of New York; and Rutgers University. He has also served as president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Ecological Society of America, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, and the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. Currently vice president of the New York Botanical Garden and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, Likens received the National Medal of Science in 2001. He received his B.S. in zoology from Manchester College and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.

Thomas E. Lovejoy is president of the nonprofit H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment. Founder of the public television series Nature, he formerly served as chief biodiversity advisor and lead specialist for the environment for the Latin American region for the World Bank, as senior advisor to the president of the UN Foundation, as assistant secretary for environmental and external affairs for the Smithsonian Institution, and as executive vice president of World Wildlife Fund's U.S. division. (He retains his link with the Smith-sonian as a research associate of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.) In 2001, Lovejoy received the John and Alice Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. He is past president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, past chairman of the U.S. Man and Biosphere Program, and past president of the Society for Conservation Biology, and he continues to serve on numerous scientific and conservation boards and advisory groups, including those of the American Museum of Natural History, the New York Botanical Garden, the Institute for Ecosystem Studies, the Wildlife Trust, the Woods Hole Research Center, and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. He holds a B.S. and Ph.D. in biology from Yale University.

Walter J. Lusigi is senior advisor for the Global Environment Facility. He is also a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, professor of conservation biology at the University of Oslo, and an affiliate member of the range science faculty at Colorado State University. Lusigi previously worked with the World Bank and UNESCO, and he has been an ecologist for the Office of the President of Kenya. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in rangeland ecology and wildlife management from Colorado State University and his Ph.D. in landscape ecology from the Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Kenton R. Miller recently retired as vice president for international development and conservation at the World Resources Institute (WRI). He has an extensive background in wildlands management; prior to joining WRI he served as director (p.xv) general of IUCN, and after joining WRI he directed its biological resources program for ten years. Miller has also served as international coordinator for the joint WRI/IUCN/UN Environment Programme's Biodiversity Program, which produced the global biodiversity strategy. He has published extensively on wild-lands management, national parks and protected areas, biodiversity conservation, bioregional planning, and decentralization. In 2005 Miller received the Bruno H. Schubert Award for his dedication to conservation issues. His undergraduate degree is from the University of Washington's school of forestry, and he holds a Ph.D. in forestry economics from New York University.

Russell W. Peterson is director of research and development for the DuPont Corporation, as well as president emeritus of the International Council for Bird Preservation. He has previously served as governor of Delaware, chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, president of the National Audubon Society, vice president of IUCN, president of New Directions, and president of the Better World Society. Additionally, he has held visiting professorships at various universities. Peterson received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Wisconsin.

John E. Reynolds III is senior scientist and manager of the Manatee Research Program at Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida, as well as cochair of the IUCN Sirenian Specialist Group. He was previously professor of marine science and biology and chair of the Natural Sciences Collegium at Eckerd College (1980–2001), where he was integral in establishing the marine science major. In 1989, Reynolds became a member of the Marine Mammal Commission's Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals; in 1990 he became chair of the committee. In 1991 he was appointed chair of the Marine Mammal Commission, and he served on the commission during the George H. W. Bush, William Clinton, and George W. Bush administrations, retiring in 2001. Reynolds holds a B.A. from Western Maryland College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, where he conducted thesis and dissertation research on behavioral ecology and functional morphology of manatees. He has published nearly 200 papers, abstracts, and books.

Nicholas A. Robinson is the Gilbert and Sarah Kerlin Distinguished Professor of Environmental Law at Pace University School of Law, where he has founded a program in environmental law, as well as the legal advisor and chairman of IUCN-The World Conservation Union's Commission on Environmental Law. He has practiced environmental law in legal firms for various municipalities. In 1969, Robinson was named to the Legal Advisory Committee of the Council on Environmental Quality to develop environmental law. He later served as the general counsel for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, a position in which he drafted New York's wetlands and wild bird laws; he is also former chairman of the statutory Freshwater Wetlands Appeals Board and Greenway Heritage Conservancy for the Hudson River Valley. The author of several books and numerous articles relating to legal aspects of environmental issues, Robinson holds an A.B. from Brown University and a J.D. from Columbia University.

(p.xvi) V. Alaric Sample has been president of the Pinchot Institute for Conservation since 1995. He is also an affiliated researcher for the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, as well as a fellow of the Society of American Foresters. Sample's professional experience spans public, private, and nonprofit organizations; he specialized in resource economics and national forest policy as senior fellow of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC, and later as vice president for research at the American Forestry Association. He has served on numerous national task forces and commissions, including the Commission on Environmental Quality's task force on biodiversity on private lands, and as cochair of the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry. He holds a Ph.D. in resource policy and economics from Yale University.

Thayer Scudder is professor emeritus of anthropology at the California Institute of Technology and a founding director of the Institute for Development Anthropology in Binghamton, New York. For the past forty-five years his primary research and policy work has dealt with the impacts of river basin development projects on local communities in Africa and Asia, including the Kariba Dam Project (Zambia-Zimbabwe), the High Dam at Aswan (Egypt-Sudan), and the Three Gorges Project (China). A commissioner on the World Commission on Dams during the commission's lifetime, he is currently a member of the environment and resettlement advisory panel for the Nam Theun 2 project in Laos. He holds an A.B. and Ph.D. from Harvard University.

John Seidensticker is senior scientist at the Smithsonian's Conservation and Research Center and at the National Zoological Park. He is also chairman of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation's Save the Tiger Fund Council. His Smithsonian research efforts have focused on understanding and encouraging landscape patterns and conditions where large mammals can persist, training future conservation leaders, and promoting environmental understanding through writing, public appearances, and museum and zoo exhibits. Previously, Seidensticker pioneered the use of radio telemetry to study mountain lions in North America. As founding principal investigator of the Smithsonian-Nepal Tiger Ecology Project, he was the coleader of the team that captured and radio-tracked the first wild tigers in Nepal. He has written and edited numerous works on animals and animal conservation, and he holds a B.A. and M.S. from the University of Montana and a Ph.D. from the University of Idaho.

James Gustave Speth is dean of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. He previously served as administrator for the UN Development Programme, president of the World Resources Institute (which he founded), chair of the Council on Environmental Quality, senior staff attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, and professor at the Georgetown University Law Center. He has a B.A. from Yale University, was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford (where he studied economics), and earned a J.D. from Yale Law School.

Lee M. Talbot is professor of environmental science, international affairs, and public policy at George Mason University, as well as senior environmental advisor to (p.xvii) the World Bank Group and to the United Nations. He was formerly director general of IUCN, chief scientist and director of international affairs for the Council on Environmental Quality, and head of environmental sciences at the Smithsonian Institution. Talbot has conducted environmental research and advising in 131 countries, and he has produced over 270 scientific publications, many of which have received national and international awards. Talbot holds an A.B. and M.A. in zoology and an interdisciplinary Ph.D. in geography and ecology, all from the University of California, Berkeley.

James G. Teer is professor emeritus at Texas A&M University, where he has engaged in evaluation and development of policy and best management practices. He previously served as professor and head of the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences at Texas A&M University and as director of the Welder Wildlife Foundation; he has also served as a research biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He has conducted research on large mammals and worked as a teacher of, and advisor on, wildlife management and conservation biology throughout the world, including the Americas, Africa, Europe, and Asia. Teer has earned a B.S. from Texas A&M University, an M.S. from Iowa State University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.

Jack Ward Thomas, retired, was the Boone and Crockett Professor of Wildlife Conservation at the University of Montana. He is also former chief (1993–1996) of the U.S. Forest Service. A wildlife biologist from Oregon and a thirty-year veteran of the Forest Service, Thomas worked in a variety of capacities (including as chief research wildlife biologist) before taking over as the head of the agency. Thomas chaired the Forest Ecosystem Management Team that developed the plan to protect the northern spotted owl; moreover, he instituted the concept of ecosystem management in the Forest Service. He currently serves on the Board of Agriculture and Natural Resources within the National Research Council. Thomas received a B.S. in wildlife management from Texas A&M University, an M.S. in wildlife ecology from West Virginia University, and a Ph.D. in forestry from the University of Massachusetts.

Russell E. Train is chairman emeritus of the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. He has also served as judge on the U.S. Tax Court, president of the Conservation Foundation, president of the World Wildlife Fund's U.S. division, undersecretary of the interior, chair of the Council on Environmental Quality, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, head of the U.S. delegation to the Stockholm UN Conference on the Human Environment, and representative to the International Whaling Commission. Train holds a B.A. from Princeton University and a J.D. from Columbia Law School.

H. Paige Tucker is an environmental specialist with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. She received her B.S., B.A., and M.A. from the University of Maryland. Currently she is a candidate for a Ph.D. in environmental science and public policy at George Mason University, where she has served as a teaching assistant (Environmental Science and Policy Department) and as an adjunct instructor (George Mason Freshman Center).

(p.xviii) John R. Twiss Jr. is former executive director (1974–2000) of the Marine Mammal Commission. He worked in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean area before joining the National Science Foundation's International Decade of Ocean Exploration program in 1970. He has twice chaired the board of the Student Conservation Association, has served on the boards of the Ocean Conservancy and the Cape Eleuthera Island School, and currently serves on the board of the Marine Conservation Biology Institute. Twiss received his B.A. from Yale University.

Frederic H. Wagner is professor emeritus in the Department of Forest, Range, and Wildlife Science at Utah State University. He specializes in ecology and management of animal populations and arid ecosystems, natural resource policy, and the role of science and policy. He previously served as director (1979–1998) of the Utah State Ecology Center, and he has cochaired a congressionally mandated ninestate assessment of climate change in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin (1998). His most recent book is Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict (2006). Wagner received his B.S. in biology from Southern Methodist University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in wildlife management from the University of Wisconsin.

Michael L. Weber is marine advisor to the California Fish and Game Commission. He previously served as vice president of the Center for Marine Conservation and special assistant to the director of National Marine Fisheries Service. His published works include From Abundance to Scarcity: A History of U.S. Marine Fisheries Policy (2001), The Wealth of Oceans (1995), and Fish, Markets, and Fishermen: The Economics of Overfishing (1999). Weber earned an A.B. in classical languages and an M.A. in Greek literature from the University of California, Berkeley.

George M. Woodwell is founder, director emeritus, and senior scientist of the Woods Hole Research Center at Woods Hole in Falmouth, Massachusetts, as well as a founder and current board member of the National Resources Defense Council. A botanist by training, he helped create and direct the Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. He also served as a senior scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Woodwell is currently supervising the construction of a new headquarters for research into global climate change and terrestrial ecology. He received the 2001 Volvo Environmental Prize in recognition of forty years of research into the role humans play in the environment. Woodwell holds an A.B. from Dartmouth College and an A.M. and Ph.D. from Duke University.


Larry L. Rockwood is associate professor of environmental science and policy at George Mason University, where he has taught general ecology, population ecology, and tropical ecology for over thirty years. He also chaired the biology department for over twelve years. Rockwood's research interests include population ecology and plant-animal interactions. He is the author of a recent textbook, An Introduction to (p.xix) Population Ecology (2005), and of a laboratory manual on general ecology. He holds a B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

Ronald E. Stewart recently retired from his positions as visiting professor and graduate coordinator in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy at George Mason University. A fellow of the Society of American Foresters, Stewart came to George Mason from the U.S. Department of Agriculture after almost thirty years of service, during which he rose in the ranks from research forester and project leader to deputy chief of programs and legislation. His research and professional interests include the integration of science and policy, natural resource policy, and forest ecology; he has over forty-two publications in these areas. Stewart received his B.S. and Ph.D. in forestry management from Oregon State University.

Thomas Dietz is assistant vice president for research and graduate study, director of the environmental science and policy program, and professor of sociology and crop and soil sciences at Michigan State University. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; he is also coauthor or coeditor of seven books and over eighty peer-reviewed papers and book chapters, including The Drama of the Commons (2002) and New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures (2002). He has received numerous awards, including the Sustainability Science Award of the Ecological Society of America and the Distinguished Contribution Award from the Section on Environment, Technology and Society, American Sociological Association. Dietz holds an undergraduate degree from Kent State University and a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis. (p.1) (p.2)