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AttentionFrom Theory to Practice$
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Arthur F. Kramer, Douglas A. Wiegmann, and Alex Kirlik

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195305722

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305722.001.0001

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Emphasis Change as a Training Protocol for High-Demand Tasks

Emphasis Change as a Training Protocol for High-Demand Tasks

Chapter:
(p.209) Chapter 15 Emphasis Change as a Training Protocol for High-Demand Tasks
Source:
Attention
Author(s):

Daniel Gopher

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305722.003.0015

Emphasis change is a training protocol under which subjects are required, during training, to change systematically their emphasis, effort, attention allocation policy (these terms are used interchangeably) on major subcomponents of the performed tasks. Emphasis levels are varied between few-minute practice trials or among pre-specified short durations of task performance. There are four major variants of the emphasis change protocol: variable priorities, emphasis change, the introduction of a secondary task, and task switching. This chapter describes the emphasis change protocol and introduces a new concept called “task shell”, a mental model of the integrated structural and dynamic properties of a task. A task shell developed through emphasis change training can lead to greater sensitivity to changes in task difficulty and load, and to better adaptation to changes through attention reallocation.

Keywords:   emphasis change, training protocol, task shell, mental model, attention allocation, task performance, variable priorities, secondary task, task switching

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