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Are We Free?Psychology and Free Will$

John Baer, James C. Kaufman, and Roy F. Baumeister

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195189636

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.001.0001

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(p.347) index

(p.347) index

Source:
Are We Free?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
absolute freedom, 68, 97
accountability, and freedom, 34
action. See also mental causation
causation of, 6
control of, 74
empirical determination of, 262
freedom of, 56
as magic, 226
neural precursors of, 207–210
psychology of, 69
random, 70
tendencies of, 144
and volition, 182
volition impact on, 189
action vs. resignation, and determinism, 33
addiction, 277
recovery from, 286
agency, 10, 46, 86, 194, 198
arguments against, 112–117
bottom-up driven models of, 103–104
and brain functioning, 109–110
in coevolution process, 100–102
cultivation of, 97
and discrepancy production, 88
and ecological validity, generalizability, 115
and forethought, 87, 103
illusion of, 238
and ingenuity, 101
and intentionality, 87, 114
inventive power of, 101
modes of, 92–93
moral, 117–121
and nonagentic causes, 102–104, 261–271
and nonreductive physicalism, 109–110
origins of, 89–92
physicality theory of, 104–107
and priority effects, 232
proactive agents vs. onlooking hosts, 109–110
and psychology future, 271–273
and self-reactiveness, 87–88
and self-reflectiveness, 88
and social structure interplay, 96
and triadic reciprocal determination, 93–96
alcohol consumption, social, control of, 270–271
Alcoholics Anonymous, 286, 289
alien hand syndrome, 187, 201
American Psychologist, 155
American Psychology Association, 205
(p.348) apparent mental causation, 228
Aquinas, Thomas, 41
The Astonishing Hypothesis (Crick), 198, 255
attention
capacity for, 165
and conscious experience, 183
early vs. late-selection views of, 157
modern theories of, 187
automatic attitudes, in social psychology, 137–138
automatic invariance, and automaticity, 156
automaticity
allure of, 168–171
and attention resources, 165
and automatic invariance, 156
Bargh on, 159–161
and behavior, 164
and cognitive psychology, 157–160
concept proliferation, 158–164
contemporary concept of, 156–157
continuous view of, 166
degrees of, 165–166
and efficient execution, 156
experimental evidence for, 164
and incorrigible completion, 156
and inevitable evocation, 156
instance-based theory of, 165
intentionality and, 156
and parallel processing, 156
and PDP, 166–168
proceduralization view of, 165
psychological experiments on, 166
roots of, 156–157
scientific evidence for, 165
and situationalism, 170–171
and social cognition, 164
social psychology concept of, 166
social-psychological literature on, 166–167
theoretical underpinnings of, 165
“The Automaticity of Social Life,” 161
automaton-theory, 155
awareness
gauging, 115
as progressive event, 115
Barber, E., 98
Bargh, John, 20, 159–161
behavior, 32, 34, 66–67. See also utilization behavior
adaptive, 134–136
of addiction, 277
and automaticity, 164
and brain controls, 36
causes of, 4, 67
conscious control of, 221
and conscious intentions, 341–342
conscious thought impact on, 76–77
and consciousness, 81–82
control of, 207, 221
evolutionary influences on, 35
explanation vs. exculpation of, 316–317
free, forced report procedure, 207
general efficacy of, 279
genetic influences on, 35–36, 99–100, 134–135
input/output model of, 102
input/throughput/output model of, 102
neuroscience of, 36
nonconscious influences on, 37–39
norm-correction strategies, 284
origination of, 144
parental/peer/cultural influences on, 37
predictability of, 314
process-dissociation procedure, 207
as random, 316–317
response-choice paradigm, 207
self-efficacy of, 279
stop-signal paradigm, 207
time perspective of, 131–133
volitionality of, 207, 276–277
behavioral genetics, 206, 299
behaviorism, and psychology, 169–170
belief, 39, 191–192, 199–200
environment, 256
explanations for, 235
in God, 235
in influencing events, 231
in magic, 228
and personality, 58
and positive events, 230
Beyond Good and Evil (Nietzsche), 60
binge behavior, bulimics, control of, 269–270
biological determinism, 315
biology
and blamelessness, 313
and culture, 99–100
legal scholars, 313
(p.349) Blackmore, Susan, 253–254
Blakeslee, Sandra, 163
blame, 44, 56, 312–313
Blank: The Power of Not Actually Thinking at All (Tall), 163
Blink (Gladwell), 163
Candid Camera,, 278
capital punishment, 318
Cartesian dualism, 7, 104
causal libertarians, 328
causation, 6, 116. See also mental causation
apparent mental, 228
and magic, 228
childhood cognition, 17
choice, 76. See also rational choice
agent vs. object condition studies, 13
experience of, 33
folk notion of, 13–14
as indeterministic, –14
internal vs. external, 68
perceived, 39
tyranny of, 39
undetermined, 130–131
Christian theology, 40, 129–130
Clinton, Hillary, 316
coevolution process, agency in, 100–102
cognitive capability, 106
cognitive processes, 4, 79
in children, 17
computerized serial vs. connectivist models of, 102–103
unconscious, 114–116
cognitive psychology, and automaticity, 157–160
cognitive regulation, 104–105
and consciousness, 106–107
collective enactment, 288
collective intention, 287–288
collective will, 286–288
and collective enactment, 288
and collective intention, 287–288
compatibilism, 10–11, 54, 67, 182, 192–194, 327
defined, 326
dual-aspect approach, 192–193
complex skill automization
contextual linkages process, 113
locus of attention process, 113–114
mergerization process, 113
conscientiousness, 58
conscious inessentialism, 171
conscious mind. See also mind
and delayed executor, 82
conscious processing, 82–83
automatic processes vs., 80
and reasoning, 79–80
studies of, 79–80
conscious shyness, 171
conscious thought
behavior impact by, 76–77
critique of, 76–77
and introspection, 78
conscious will
illusion of, 236–238
and magical self, 340–343
and social control, 242–243
and social signaling, 239–241
and social task allocation, 241
consciousness, 6
and behavior, 81–82
and cognitive regulation, 106–107
cultural animal perspective, 77
as emergent brain activity, 107
and free will, 331–340
functional aspect of, 106
hard problem of, 183–185
and individual/collective link, 78
purpose of, 164
scientific account of, 197
scientific critique of, 76–77
and social life, 76–78
and social psychology, 76–77
uses of, 78–81
and zombies, 183–184, 189
Consciousness Explained (Dennet), 185, 249
Consilience (Wilson), 206
consistency effects, and mental causation, 229–231
contextual priming
and adaptation, 140–141
and imitation/mimicry, 141–142
and perceptual readiness, 140
control levels, genetic, cultural, psychological, 134–136
control theory, and self-regulation, 88
control, variability of, 276–277
counseling, and self-determination, 267–268
(p.350) creativity, 8
10-year rule, 299–300
behavior genetics of, 299
career of, 300
laboratory studies of, 80–81
and volition, 298
as yang, 299–301
as yin, 296–299
ying/yang of, 301
Crick, Francis, 198–199, 255
The Crime of Imprisonment (Shaw), 318
The Crime of Punishment (Menninger), 318
cultural evolution, 251
culture(s)
adaptation of, 134–136
advantages of, 75
and biology, 75, 99–100
collective action through, 78
freedom across, 39–40
and meaning, 75
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (Dennet), 249
Dawkins, Richard, 134, 253
decision making, 146, 306–307
deterministic, 14–15
by groups, 77–78
indeterministic generation of, 14–17
and libertarian free will, 21
moral, 21
proximal vs. distal, 332–333
and reason, 307
Defending the Caveman, 306
delayed executor, 82
Dennet, D. C., 185, 249, 250, 252, 255, 314
descriptive project, 12–19
and folk notion of choice, 13–14
and libertarian free will belief, 14–19
desire, and intention, 279
determinism, 4, 32. See also biological determinism; environmental determinism; hard determinism; reciprocal determinism
and action vs. resignation, 33
Bargh/Ferguson notion of, 20–22
and choice, 33
common objections to, 33–35
defined, 305, 326
divine, 40–41
and fatalism, 33
fear of, 311–312
indeterminism vs., 306
judicial concerns, 35
and laws, 330–331
mathematical sense of, 314–315
neuroscientific support for, 195
and praise vs. blame, 33–34
and retributive punishment, 45
determinism, freedom, and religion, 40–41
discrepancy production, and agency, 88
Edwards, Jonathan, 40
efficient execution, and automaticity, 156
ego
birth of, 227–234
depletion effects, 147
implicit, 139
as res cogitans, 254
Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will (Dennet), 249, 255, 314
enactment, and volitionality, 281
Encyclopedia of Psychology, 3, 205
entity theory, 47
entity-incremental psychology, and free will, 53–56
environmental determinism, 315–316
environmental influences, 206, 272
epiphenomenalism, 119, 171–172
epistemological reductionism, 110, 331
ethics, 6
event-causal libertarians, 55
evil, 86, 235
evolutionary arguments, 239
evolutionary biology, 250
evolutionary influences, 35, 73–74, 136, 227
evolutionary theory, 137 See also cultural evolution
exclusivity effects, and mental causation, 233–234
false memory, 186
fatalism, and determinism, 33
Faulty Towers, 253
Ferguson, Melissa, 20
first-person perspective, 184
five freedoms, and self-theories, 56–57
forethought, agency and, 87, 103
(p.351) fortuity
agentic management of, 98–99
and personal resources, 99
free and forced report procedure, 207
free rider problem, 272
free will. See also libertarian free will
absolutist doctrines of, 257–258
academic study of, 186
amount of, 57–59
arguments for, 130
authoritative sources on, 205
awareness of, 193–194
belief consequences, 197–201, 256
belief in, 191–192, 199–200
Cartesian vision of, 255
Christian theology and, 129–130
and conscious processing, 82–83
and conscious volition, 209–210
and consciousness, 331–340
and creativity, 80
defined, 326
descriptive dimension of, 4–5
under determinism, 307–309
easy problems of, 185–189
elimination of, 12
and entity-incremental psychology, 53–56
existence of, 5, 57–59, 66–67
explanations of, 67–69
and external causes, 70
folk understanding of, 193
force magnitude of, 264
for free, 258
function of, 69
hard problem of, 183, 187–189
hard vs. easy problem of, 185
and identity dualism, 192–193
illusion of, 7, 148–149, 188
impaired, 221
influence vs. determined, 130–131
magic of, 235
metaphysical analysis of, 6
naturalistic variety of, 251–252
objections to, 67, 70
outside academia, 182
perception of, 44, 48
philosophical background, 326–330
prescriptive dimension of, 5
problem dimensions of, 4–5, 182
as proportion variance, 275–276
psychological vs. political concept of, 129–130
as random action generator, 82–83
and rational choice, 71–72, 79
as reactive, 81
reality of, 66
and responsibility, 312–314
and science, 70, 129
and self-regulation, 70–71
skeptics of, 70
substantive dimension of, 5
and unpredictable future, 134
useful forms of, 71–74
Wikipedia definition of, 207
Free Will and Determinism Scale, 200
Free Will and Illusion (Smilansky), 53
free will-determinism debate, 9, 260–261
freedom. See also absolute freedom
and accountability, 34
across cultures, 39–40
degrees of, 68
institutions of, 97–98
psychological science and, 35–38, 38–40
and rights, options, 97
social cognitive perspective of, 97
and triadic reciprocal determination, 96–98
Freedom Evolves (Dennet), 250, 252
Freud, Sigmund, 72, 76, 164
general efficacy, 279
genetics. See also behavioral genetics
and behavior, 35–36, 99–100, 134–135, 206
and social cognitive theory, 101–102
substantive project, 22–24
Gladwell, Malcolm, 163
go process, stop process, 211–212
go reaction time, 210
goal priming, and mind reading, 142–144
The Godfather, 319
Goldsmith, Morris, 207
group decision making, 77–78
Guernica, 299
hard determinism, 10, 191–192
heterosexual social interaction frequency, and volition, 268
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 318
(p.352) horse-race model, 211
human agency. See agency
human nature
laws of, 45
theological conceptions of, 86
humans, as cultural animals, 74–76
Huxley, Thomas, 251
identity dualism, 192–193
The Illusion of Conscious Will (Wegner), 162, 187, 252, 325
The Illusion of Romantic Love (Wegner), 252
imitation, 141–142
implicit egotism, 139
impulsivity, 212–213
incompatibilism, 305, 326
incorrigible completion, and automaticity, 156
incremental theory, 47, 54–55
indeterminism, 14–17, 32
determinism vs., 306
and possibility, 17–19
inevitable evocation, and automaticity, 156
infant studies, 16
information processing, automatic vs. controlled, 156
ingenuity, and agency, 101
inhibition, 210–213
deficits of, 221
insanity defense, 320–321
Integrated Causal Theory Model, 129
integrity promotion, with values, 285–286
integrity therapy, 286
intention, 131, 142, 278–281
and agency, 87, 114
and automaticity, 156
and desire, 279
formation of, 283–284
and language, 280
and RP, 337–338
and social judgment, 279
time of intention studies, 147
internal representations, 141–142
internal traits, self-theories about, 47–48
intrinsic motivation, 39
introspection, 14, 19
and conscious thought, 78
evidence on, 23–24
irrationality, evidence for, 169
Islam, 40
Jacoby, Larry, 207
James, William, 155, 162
Jesus is Magic, 228
Johnson, Samuel, 191
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 159
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 159
Judaism, 40
Kelley, Harold, 227
Koriat, Asher, 207
language, 75, 107
acquisition of, 145
and intention, 280
laws, and determinism, 330–331
learned helplessness, 39
LeGault, Malcolm, 163
libertarian free will, 54, 327–328
belief in, 14–18, 23
and decisions, 21
and descriptive project, 14–19
genetic arguments, 22–24
and mind, 15–16
a posterior arguments, 20–22
a priori arguments, 19–20
libertarianism, 10, 12, 194–195
causal, 328
criticism of, 194–195
event-causal, 55
liberty of indifference, 339
Libet, Benjamin, 207–210
Locke, John, 131
Logan, Gordon, 207, 210
logical reasoning, and conscious processing, 79–80
Luther, Martin, 41, 308
magic
causality and, 227
explanations of, 228, 235
of free will, 235
of love, 235
of self, 236–237
magic perception, Kelley theory of, 227
materialism, 251
meaning, and culture, 75
(p.353) The Meme Machine (Blackmore), 253
memory performance, 218
assessing control in, 213–216
and early selection, 221
granularity of, 219–220
incentive conditions impact on, 218
monitoring effectiveness impact on, 218–219
and QAP, 220
quantity-accuracy trade-off, 218
report option impact on, 217
reporting, 216–221
response control threshold impact on, 220
ROC curves, 219
subjective confidence impact on, 218
memory processes, 214–215
Menninger, Karl, 318
mental causation
apparent, 188
consistency effects, 229–231
exclusivity effects, 233–234
priority effects, 231–232
mental intentions, and physical events, 196
mental states, 15–16
mentalist theories, 189–190
Merton, R., 98
methodological reductionism, 110
Milne, A. A., 312
mimicry, 141–142
mind, 15–16, 131
and libertarian free will, 15–16
and mirror neurons, 142
reading, goal priming, 142–144
theory of, 142
as uncaused causer, 15
mirror neurons, 142
misattribution of will studies, 147
moral agency, 117–121
capacity for, 120
inhibitive vs. proactive, 117–118
and modular epiphenomenalism, 119
and neuroscience, 119–120
and perception, 120
research on, 121
self-regulation and, 117
moral decisions, 21
moral implications, 198
moral responsibility, 10, 26, 44, 54, 238, 243, 252, 254, 329
self-theories of, 51–53
moral views, 25
motivation, 39, 47
motivational interviewing (MI), 284
mythology, 296–297
National Rifle Association, 313
natural selection, 70, 251
Net of Magic: Wonders and Deceptions in India (Siegel), 250
neural systems, 187
neurocognitive systems, 183
neuroethics, 118–119
neurophysiological processes, 104–105, 191, 207–210
and agency, 109–110
mirror neurons in, 142
second-order control of, 108–109
neuroscience
of behavior, 36
and determinism, 195
and moral agency, 119–120
New York Times, 163
New Yorker, 163, 316
Nicomachean Ethics, 329
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 289
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 60
Non Sequitur, 316
nonagentic causes, agency role in, 261–271
nonconscious influences, on behavior, 37–39
nonreductive physicalism, and agency, 110–111
norm-correction strategies, 284
nurturance, 59
obedience hypothesis, empirical investigations of, 266–267
obligation, 16–17
observation, and quantum physics, 197
"On the Hypothesis That Animals Are Automata and Its History" (Huxley), 251
ontological reductionism, 110
open-ended systems, 134
parallel processing, and automaticity, 156
paranormal phenomenon, 230–231
(p.354) parental/peer/cultural influences, 37
Peale, Norman Vincent, 39
perceived choice, 39
perception, and moral agency, 120
perceptual readiness, 140
personal control, and self-determination, 38–39
personality, 45, 57–58
and belief systems, 58
self-formation of, 59–60
personality traits, and self-theories, 58–59
physical events, and mental intentions, 196
Picasso, Pablo, 298–299
Plato, 330
possibility, and indeterminism, 17–19
The Power of Positive Thinking (Peale), 39
praise vs. blame, and determinism, 33–34
preferences, 136–139
prescriptive project, 24–27
priming, 188–189. See also contextual priming
priority effects, 231–232
and agency, 232
and mental causation, 231–232
problem solving, 298
process dissociation procedure (PDP), 214–216
and automaticity, 166–168
implementation of, 215
opposition procedure of, 215
process-dissociation procedure (PDP), 207
pseudoserendipity, 297
Psychological Bulletin, 196
psychological compatibilism, 192
psychological processes, as energy transactions, 72
psychologists, 3, 66
psychology, 66
and agency, 271–273
and behaviorism, 169–170
cognitive revolution in, 142
conscious primacy in, 128
of volition, 277–283
psychotherapy, and self-determination, 267–268
punishment. See also retributive punishment
capital, 318
as deterrence, 317–322
by God, 319
and insanity defense, 320–321
and self-theories, 52–53
threat of, 317–318
quantity-accuracy profile (QAP), 220
quantum physics, 196–197, 305–306, 329
random action, 70
rational choice, 71–72
and free will, 79
readiness potential (RP), 186, 208, 333–338
and intention, 337–338
Type II, 334–335
reasoning, 66
and conscious processing, 79–80
and decision making, 307
and self-regulation, 73
receiver operating characteristic (ROC), 219
reciprocal determinism, 41
reductionism
in applied social science, 111
epistemological, 110
methodological, 110
necessary conditions for, 110–111
ontological, 110
religion, and determinism, freedom, 40–41
resilience, 58
response-choice paradigm, 207
responsibility. See also moral responsibility
exemptions from, 320
retributive punishment, 26–27, 199
and determinism, 45
risk taking, 59
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 68
science, 70
scientific experiment, validity of, 263
scientific theory, underdetermination of, 262
self
and action origin, 227
illusion of, 236–237
(p.355)
inherent persistence of, 236
as magic, 227
magic of, 236–237
self vs. other, 41–42
self-control, 38–39. See also self-regulation
belief in, 222
freedom of, 56
and integrity, 286
self-determination
capacity for, 283
and counseling/psychotherapy, 267
development of, 282–283
evidence for, 263–264
freedom of, 56
and personal control, 38–39
and self-theories, 51
self-efficacy, 39, 279
self-formation
actions of, 55
freedom of, 56
The Selfish Gene (Dawkins), 134
self-knowledge, 7, 227
self-organizing systems, 116
self-prediction, 240
self-reactiveness, and agency, 87–88
self-reflectiveness, and agency, 88
self-regulation, 70–71, 81
capacity for, 288–289
and control theory, 88
development of, 288–289
energy process of, 72
homeostatic cycle of, 283–285
and logical reasoning, 73
and moral agency, 117
research on, 72–73
strengthening, 285
and volitional action, 282–283
self-theories, 44, 46–47
entity theory, 47
and five freedoms, 56–57
incremental theory, 47
about internal traits, 47–48
and moral responsibility, 51–53
and motivation, 47
and personality traits, 58–59
psychological consequences of, 49–51
and punishment, 52–53
and self-determination, 51
serendipity, 297–298
Shaw, George Bernard, 318
Siegel, Lee, 250
signal detection theory (SDT), 218–219
similarity effect, 138–139
simple actions, inhibition of, 210–213
situationalism
and automaticity, 170–171
in social psychology, 170
Skinner, B. F., 34–35, 104, 142, 304
Sliding Doors, 306
Smilansky, Saul, 53
snacking and exercise, control of, 269
social cognition
and automaticity, 164
priming research in, 144
social cognitive theory, 87
and emergent interactive agency, 107
on freedom, 97
and genetic arguments, 101–102
social control, and conscious will, 242–243
social groups, 48, 74
social life, and consciousness, 76–78
social psychology
and aggression/altruism/attitude change/attraction, 170
automatic attitudes in, 137–138, 157–158
automaticity concept in, 166
biologization of, 168–169
cognitive revolution in, 168
and consciousness, 76–77
situationalism doctrine in, 170
social science, reductionism in, 111
social signaling, and conscious will, 239–241
social structure, and agency, 96
social systems, 96
social task allocation, and conscious will, 241
Socrates, 330
spontaneous motion account, 15–16
stop-signal paradigm, 207, 210–213
experiments, 210–212
subject populations, 212
subjectivity, 183–184
substantive project, 19–24
genetic arguments, 22–24
a posteriori arguments, 20–22
a priori arguments, 19–20
(p.356) Talk, 316
Tall, Noah, 163
therapeutic interventions, and volition, 267–268
Think: Why Critical Decisions Can’t Be Made in the Blink of an Eye (LeGault), 163
time of intention studies, 147
time perspective, 131–133
hindsight bias, 132–133
just-world bias, 132
status-quo effect, 132
Torrance, Alan, 36
The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (Merton, Barber), 98
triadic reciprocal determination, 93–96
freedom and, 96–98
tyranny of choice, 39
unconscious
cognitive processes, 114–116
mechanisms, 144–148
primacy of, 146–148
priming, 188–189
volition, 209–210
Unintended Thought, 160
utilization behavior, 187
variability, and volitionality, 282
Velten, E., 200
Velten mood induction task, 200
vocational information researching, control of, 269
volition, 8, 289
and action, 189, 277–278
of behavior, 276–277
and binge behavior control, 269–270
and creativity, 298
and enactment, 281
engaging, 283–286
and heterosexual social interaction frequency, 268
and intended consequences, 280
interpretation criticisms, 264–266
psychology of, 277–283
public vs. private challenges to, 265–266
and self-regulation, 282–283
and snacking/exercise control, 269
and social alcohol consumption control, 270–271
studies of, 263–269
and therapeutic interventions, 267–268
unconscious, 209–210
and variability, 282
and vocational information researching, 269
Wegner, Daniel, 162, 187, 252, 325
West Side Story, 316
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, 307
Wikipedia, 207
Wilson, Edward, 206
World Question Center, 253
yang, 299–301
yin/yang, creativity as, 301
zombies, 183–184, 189