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Minds Behind the BrainA history of the pioneers and their discoveries$

Stanley Finger

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195181821

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.001.0001

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(p.349) Index

(p.349) Index

Source:
Minds Behind the Brain
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Abbiategrasso (hospital), 203–204
Ablation, 159
Académie de Medécine, 137
Daxes and, 145–146
Académie des Sciences, 126,190
“Accident and Opportunism in Medical Research” (Dale), 5
Acetylcholine, 265–267, 270, 271–272
detecting in skeletal muscles, 273–275
myasthenia gravis and, 276–277
Adrenalin, 261–262, 270, 273
“Adrenergic”, 275–276
Adrian, Edgar Douglas, 236, 239, 258, 304, 305, 306, 309
all–or–nothing principle and, 243
background of, 242–243
death of, 258
education of, 243
EEG and, 252–255
later years of, 2 5 7–2 5 8
maps somatosensory areas, 255–256
olfaction and, 256–257
proprioceptive feedback and, 248–249
single neurons and, 249–251
wins Nobel Prize, 236, 251–252, 253
World War I, 243
Adrian, Hester, 252
Aeschylus, 26,116
Aesculapius. see Asklepios
Akelaitis, Andrew, 292
Albert, prince consort, 131
Albucasis, 55
Alcohol, dissection and, 200
Aldini, Giovanni, 111, 114
Alexandria, Egypt, 33–36
Galen in, 40
Ambidextrous culture societies, 153
“Ameboidism”, neural, 214
American Journal of Phrenology, 132
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 187–189
Analytic geometry, 72
Anatomie et physiologie
(Anatomy and Physiology…)
(Gall), 126,129
“Anatomy Lesson, The” (Rembrandt), 92
Andral, Gabriel, 139
Andromachus, 50
Animal–rights activists. see Antivivisectionists
Animals
Descartes’ machine theory of, 74–79
Gall’s theory of faculties shared with humans, 123–124
Antidotes (Galen), 50–51
Antisepsis, 168–169, 172 _ 174
Antitoxin, 220, 264
Antivivisectionists
criticism of, 173–174
Ferrierand, 158–159, 169–172
Anubis (god), 16, 18
Aphasia, 145
Apollo (god), 22–23
Apoplexy. see Strokes
“Arc”, 221
Aristotle, 36, 53
Galen and, 44–45, 48
Asklepieia (temples), 23
Asklepios (god), 22–24, 39
Atropine, 262, 266, 271
(p.350) Aubertin, Simon Alexandre Ernest, 140, 141, 142
Broca and, 143
Austria, 121–125
Autonomic nervous system, 46, 95–96, 261–262
Autopsy, term introduced, 41. see also Dissection, of humans
Averroës, 55
Avicenna, 55, 56
Axon
chemical guidance of, 281, 283–286
Golgi and, 203, 205
term introduced, 197
Axonologists, 245–248
Bain, Alexander, 162, 214, 228
Balzac, Honoré de, 135
Barger, George, 264
Barlow, Thomas, 148, 153
Bartholin, Thomas, 80–81
Bastian, Charlton Henry, 148
Battle of Marathon, 27
Baudelaire, Charles–Pierre, 135
Bayliss, William, 263
Beard, George, 192
Beekman, Isaac, 71
Bell, Charles, 226
Bell, John, 131–132, 135
Bennett, Hughes, 172, 174
Berengario da Carpi, Jacopo, 58–59, 68
Berger, Hans, 253–255
Berlin, University of, 210, 211
Bernheim, Hippolyte, 195
Bianchi, Luigi, 166
Bicêtre, 179
Bilateral training, 152–153
Black bile, 31–32
Black Death, 56
“Black reaction”, 204
Blood
Church bans drawing of, 56–57
one of four humors, 31
transfusion of, 89
William Harvey and, 69, 88–89
Bloodletting, 15
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 112
Boerhaave, Herman, 102, 104
Bogen, Joseph, 295–296
Bologna, University of, 109
Book of the Dead, 18
Borelli, Giovanni, 102
“Boston Notions” (poem), 134–135
Boston Phrenological Society, 132
Bouchard, 190
Bouillaud, Jean–Baptiste, 137–139, 141
Broca and, 143
Boussard, 10
Boyle, Robert, 89
Brain, 1–2
described in Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, 13
embalming and, 19
Erasistratus on, 35
function of Galen on, 46–47
Vesalius on, 64–65
Willis on, 92–96
Herophilus on, 3 5
Hippocratic medicine and, 29–33
injuries to
discussed in Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, 13–14
Hippocratic medicine and, 30
recovery from, 168, 230–231
in 16th century, 68
Brain (journal), 167
Brain, Lord Russell, 236
Braun, Karl, 246
Brazier, Mary, 103
Breasted, James, 11–12,13
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 149
British Medical Journal, 148, 171
British Museum, 234
Broca, Paul, 3–4,136, 303
background of, 140–142
cerebral dominance theory of, 147–150
Charcot and, 190
(p.351)
cortical localization theory of, 140–145,159
Daxes and, 146
death of, 154
Jackson and, 149–150, 153
later years of, 153–154
Bronk, Detlev, 251
Brontë, Charlotte, 135
Brown Institution, 220
Brown–Séquard, Charles–Edouard, 153
Brown, T. Graham, 226, 233
Browning, Robert, 170
Bruce, Lewis, 151–152
Bueker, Elmer, 288
Bulletin de la Sociééte d’Anthropologie, 145
Burghölzli Asylum, 175
Burroughs, Silas K., 264
Burroughs Wellcome and Co., 264
Bykov, Konstantin, 294
Byron, Lord George Gordon, 115
Cajal, Doña Silvería, 208
Cajal, Santiago Ramón y, 3,197–216, 304
background of, 206–207
death of, 216
Golgi’s stain and, 208–209
later years of, 216
microscope and, 207–211
neuron theory of, 211–214, 285–286
wins Nobel Prize, 3, 215
Calabar bean, 271
Caldini, Leopoldo, 109
Caldwell, Dr. Charles, 131–132,135
California Institute of Technology, Campbell, Alfred, 225
Cannon, Walter, 244, 273, 302, 308, 309
wins Nobel Prize, 5
Canon (Avicenna), 55
Canopic jars, 19
Capillary electrometer, 239–240, 242
Forbes and, 244
Carmine stain, 202
Carswell, Robert, 183
Cartesians, 72, 80
Cathedra (chair), 57
Cathode ray tube, 246–247
Caton, Richard, 253
Cavallo, Tiberius, 108
“Cell”, 198
Cell theory, 201
Celsus, 34–35,40
Central Phrenological Society, 132
“Cerebel”, 92,95–96
Cerebellum, involuntary functions and, 95–96
Cerebral cortex, 3, 228–230, 255–256
mapping of, 155–175
Cerebral dominance, 3–4, 29, 139
Broca and, 145, 147–150
Daxes and, 145–147
Sperry and, 299
Cerebral localization. see Cortical localization theory
Cerebral syphilis, 164
Cerebri anatome (Cerebral Anatomy) (Willis), 88–89, 91. 93, 119
reactions to, 97–98
“Cerebrum”, 92–93
Chaining, 228
Champollion, Jean–François, 11
Chance, 4–5, 306–309
Charcot, Augustine Victoire Durvis, 182
Charcot, Jean–Baptiste, 182,189,196
Charcot, Jean–Martin, 97, 157, 177–196, 304
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and, 187–189
background of, 177–178
cerebral localization theory and, 189–192
death of, 196
education of, 178–179
Ferrier’s trial and, 171
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and, 192–194
home life of, 182
(p.352)
hysteria and, 194–195
lectures of, 191
multiple sclerosis and, 183–184
neurological examinations of, 181–182
Parkinson’s Disease and, 184–187
at Salpêtrière, 147
Charcot, Jeanne, 182
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, 189
Charité, 137, 140, 184
Charles I, king of England, 86, 88
Charles II, king of England, 88
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 67
Chemical guidance, of nervous system, 285–286
Chicago, University of, 11, 283, 285, 293, 294–295
Chiron (centaur), 22–23
Cholera, 208, 219
“Cholinergic”, 275–276
Cholinesterase, 271–272
Choroid plexuses, 47
Christina, queen of Sweden, 74
Chromic acid, 200, 202
Chromosome, 211
Clymer, Meredith, 184
Cobbe, Frances Power, 170–171
Cognitivists, 82
Cohen, Stanley, 289
Combe, Andrew, 131
Combe, George, 131, 132
Commentaries on Hippocrates and Plato (Galen), 47
Commentary (Galvani), 110–111, 113, 119
Computer, as metaphor, 2
Conduction of the Nervous Impulse, The (Lucas), 243
Consciousness, nature of, 299–300
Constantinus Africanus, 55
Constitution of Man (Combe), 131
Contrecoup injury, 13
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 61, 72
Coprotherapy, 17
Corday, Charlotte, 106
Coronis (nymph), 23
Corpus callosum
intellect and, 291–295
Sperry and, 281, 290–295, 300
Willis’ use of term, 92, 93
Corpus Hippocraticum, 28–33, 34, 39
Corpus striatum, 93–95
Cortex. see Cerebral cortex
Corti, Alphonse, 202
Cortical localization theory, 284
Bouillaud and, 137–140
Broca and, 140–145, 159
Charcot and, 189–192
Gall and, 122–127, 135, 137,144
Goltzand, 157
Swedenborg and, 119–121
Craniotomy, 32–33
Crichton–Browne, James, 153, 167, 173
Ferrierand, 162–163
Cruelty to Animals Act, (1876), 159, 170–172
Cruveilhier, Jean, 183, 189
Cuba, 207
Curare, 266
Curtius, Matthaeus, 61
Cushing, Harvey, 226
Cuvier, George, 126,133
Dale, Henry Hallet, 259–279, 263–264, 271, 274, 277, 309
acetylcholine and, 272–273
death of, 279
on Elliott, 262–263
Feldberg and, 274–275
Loewi and, 268, 270, 278
research of, 264–267
wins Nobel Prize, 5, 278
Dampierre, Marquise de, 193
Dandy, Walter, 291, 292
Dargès (patient), 183
Darwin, Charles, 83
Daudet, Léon, 191
David, Jacques–Louis, 106
Dax, Gustave, 145–147
Dax, Marc, 3,145–147, 303
De anima brutorum (Willis), 89,90, 91, 96–97, 98
(p.353) De humani corporis fabricia (Vesalius). see Fabrica
De motu cordis (Harvey), 88
De naturali parte medicinae ( Fernel), 235
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Copernicus), 61
Deacon Brodie; or the Double Life… (Stevenson and Henley), 151
Decerebration, 227
Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System (Cajal), 216
Deiters, Otto Friedrich Karl, 202
Delboeuf, Joseph, 195
Democracy, 25–26
Dendrite, 202, 203, 205
term introduced, 197
Denny–Brown, Derek, 233
Dermatomes, 225–226
Descartes, Francine, 74
Descartes, René, 68, 69–83, 91, 101, 221, 226, 303
Church and, 72–74
death of, 74
education of, 70–72
mind–body problem and, 77–83
nervous system theories of, 74–83
phrenology and, 136
Willis contrasted to, 85, 99
Desideratum or, Electricity Made Plain and Simple by a Lover of Mankind and Common Sense, The (Wesley), 105
D’Esté, Auguste, 183
Diagnosis from Dreams (Galen), 48
Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo), 72
Diego d’Alacá, 67
“Dinosaur”, 306
Diodes, 36
Diphtheria, 220, 264
Discourse on Method (Descartes), 73, 77
Dissection, of animals
Aristotle and, 36
Descartes and, 75
Galen and, 40, 41–43, 44, 61
Hippocrates and, 4
Sylvius teaches, 60
Willis and, 88
Dissection, of humans
in Alexandria, 33–36
Galen and, 41
Gall and, 125
Hippocrates and, 33
Leonardo da Vinci and, 58
in 13th century Italy, 56–57
Vesalius and, 59–61
Willis and, 87, 95
women and, 56, 62
Wren and, 89
Dixon, Walter, 262
Djoser, King, 7, 9
Dogmatists, 39
Don Carlos, of Spain, 67
Dreams
Eyptian belief in, 9
Galen and, 48
Loewi and, 270–271
Du Bois–Reymond, Emil, 112,117, 219, 240, 260
Duchenne de Boulogne, Guillaume, 181, 188
Dudley, Harold, 272–273
Dupuytren, Guillaume, 137
Dynamic polarization, law of, 212
Dyscrasia, 31–32
Ebers, George, 17
Ebers Papyrus, 17, 17–18
Eccles, John Carew, 233, 236
Edinburgh Phrenological Society, 131
Edinburgh Review, 134
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, 9–10
acquisition of, 10, 17
contents of, 13–14
contributors to, 12–13
deciphering of, 10–12
Egypt, 7–19, 33–36
Einthoven, Willem, 240
Electricity
and cortex mapping, 160–162, 165
(p.354)
18th century theories of, 103–115
from fish, 49, 103, 107–109
Electrophysiology. see Nervous system, coding in
Electrotherapy, 105–106, 113
gothic nature of, 115–117
Eliot, George, 135
Elisa P. (patient), 150
Elliott, Thomas Renton, 262
Loewi and, 268
Embalming, 18–19
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 244
Empedocles, 25
Empiricists, 39
English Civil War, 86, 88
Epidemics, 87
Epidemics (Hippocrates), 27, 28
Epilepsy
Broca and, 142–143
Charcot and, 180
Galen and, 49
Hippocratic medicine and, 30
Jackson and, 164
surgery and, 292
Todd and, 160
Willis and, 97
Epione (goddess), 23
Epitome (Vesalius), 62, 65
Erasistratus, 34–35, 46, 47
Erb,Wilhelm, 222
Ergot, 264–266
Erlanger, Joseph, 245, 246–248
Essay on the Shaking Palsy, An (Parkinson), 185
Eucrasia, 31
Euler, Ulf von, 273
Euripides, 26
Eustachio, 65
Ewins, Arthur, 266
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), 236
Experiments and Observations on Electricity, Made at Philadelphia in America (Franklin), 105
Fabrica (Vesalius)
contents of, 61–65, 80,92
reactions to, 65–67
revision of, 66, 67
Faculties of the mind list, of Gall, 124
Fallopio, 65
Familial dysautonomia, 289–290
Familial left–handers, 148
Feldberg, Wilhelm
research of, 275–276
World War II and, 274
Fernel, Jean, 51, 81
Sherrington and, 234–235
Ferrier, David, 155–175, 218, 253, 302
antivivisectionists and, 158–159, 169–172
background of, 162
death of, 175
experiments of, 162–169
Godlee and, 172, 174
at International Medical Conference, 155, 157–158
later years of, 175
Flaubert, Gustave, 135
Flourens, Pierre, 125, 132–134, 136, 159, 160
Foolishness, 96–97
Forbes, Alexander, 226, 244, 248, 251
Adrian and, 252
World War I, 244
Forel, August, 205–206
Forge, Louis de la, 80
Formaldehyde, 200
Foster, Michael, 218
Ferrier’s trial and, 171
Foster, Thomas, 130
Four humors, 25, 31–33
stroke and, 48–49
France, 70–71, 72, 125–127
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, 122,124–125
Franco–Prussian War, 189
Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus (Shelley), 116–117
Franklin, Benjamin, 105, 106, 107, 110
(p.355) Frederick II, king of Italy, 56
Freud, Sigmund, 194, 270
Friction machines, 104
Fritsch, Gustav, 159
background of, 159
death of, 175
experiments of, 160–162
Ferrier and, 164
Fröhlich, Alfred, 226
Fuchs, Leonhart, 66–67
Fulton, John, 222, 233, 236
Functions of the Brain, The (Ferrier), 167–168
Gage, Phineas, 166
Galen, 303, 304, 307
background of, 39–41
brain function theories of, 46–47, 54
dissection and, 40, 41–43, 44, 61
electric shocks and, 103
on Hippocrates, 27
legacy of, 51
nervous system theories of, 44–46, 102
pineal gland and, 79, 81
as practicing physician, 41, 47–51
Sylvius defends, 65–66
treatises of, 41
Vesalius questions conclusions of, 53, 60–65
vivisection and, 35, 43–44
Galene, 50
Galileo, 69, 72, 74
Gall, Franz Joseph, 117, 119–136, 302
Bouillaud and, 138, 139
cortical localization theory of, 122–127, 135, 144
death of, 127
education of, 121–122
Flourens and, 133–134
research methods of, 127–129, 135–136
Spurzheim and, 129–130
Galvani, Aloisio Luigi, 101–117, 103, 306
education of, 109–110
electrical research of, 110–112, 114
Volta disputes, 113–115
Galvani, Lucia Galeazzi, 110
Galvanism, 114
Galvanometer, 117
Gambetta, Leon, 190
Garrison, Fielding Henry, 177
Gaskell, Walter, 218, 220, 261, 263
Gassendi, Pierre, 82, 83, 91
Gasser, Herbert, 245–248
Adrian and, 252
Gazetta Medica Italiana, Lombardia (Golgi), 204–205
Gazzaniga, Michael, 296
Gerard of Cremona, 55
Gerlach, Joseph von, 202–203
German Anatomical Society, 210
Germany, 200, 209–211
Gibson, William, 233
Gilbert, William, 103
Gilles de la Tourette, Georges, 192–193
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, 192–194
Glial cells, 205, 214
Glisson, Francis, 101–102
Godlee, Rickman J., 172–174
Goeckel, Rudolf, 91
Golgi, Camillo, 3, 203–205, 211
nerve theory of, 212
wins Nobel Prize, 3, 215
Golgi tendon organs, 205, 223
Golgi’s silver stain, 203–205
Cajal and, 208–209
Goltz, Friedrich, 155, 157–158, 169
Sherrington and, 219
Gotch, Francis, 232, 239, 240
Gould, Stephen Jay, 306
Granit, Ragnar, 233, 309
Gratiolet, Pierre, 139–140, 141, 144
Gray, Stephen, 106–107
Greece
early, 21–25
Golden Age of, 25–33
Hellenistic period, 33–37
Grunbaum, A.S.F., 229
(p.356) Guillain, Georges, 181
Guilly, Mr. (Queen’s Counsel), 171
Gustav, king of Sweden, 278
Hales, Stephen, 106–107
Hall, Marshall, 219, 221, 226
Haller, Albrecht von, 102
Hamburger, Viktor, 288, 289
Hamme, Anne van, 67
Hammond, William, 192
Handedness, 148–149
Handwriting, 186
Hannover, Adolph, 200
Harrison, Ross Granville, 213, 285, 286, 288
Harvard University, 132, 244, 284
Harvey, William, 69, 74–75, 88–89
Head, Henry, 225
Hearing, 165
Heart, as central organ
to Aristotle, 36
in Egypt, 15,18–19
in Greece, 21–22
Helmholtz, Hermann, 117, 219, 222, 308
Hemispheric specialization, 298–299
Henley, William Ernest, 151
Henry, Joseph, 309
Hercules, 30
Hering, H.E., 226
Herodotus, 18, 19
Herophilus of Chalcedon, 34–35, 81
Heselar, Baldasar, 61
Hippocrates, 21–37, 44, 53
on human dissection, 33
Hippocratic Collection. see Corpus Hippocraticum
Hippocratic medicine, 26
brain and, 29–33
four humors and, 31–33
Hippocratic oath, 28
His, Wilhelm, 197, 205
Histamine, 273
Histology
carmine and, 202
in 19th century, 200
saffron and, 199–200
silver stain and, 203–205, 208–209
Histology of the Nervous System (Cajal), 216
Hitzig, Eduard, 155–175, 159, 166, 304
background of, 159
death of, 175
experiments of, 160–162
Ferrier and, 164
later years of, 175
Holists, 3
Holland, 71, 72–74, 75, 240
Homer, 22, 23
Homme–machine, L’ (La Mettrie), 82
Horsley, Victor, 173,174, 229, 239
Horus (god), 16–17, 19
Hubel, David, 282
Humboldt, Alexander von, 114
Humors. see Four humors
Hunt, Reid, 265, 266
Hunter, Dr. John, 108
Huntingdon’s disease, 95
Hydrocephalus, 62
Hygeia (goddess), 23
Hypnotism, 195
Hysteria, 97, 194–195
“I think, therefore I am.”, 77
Iatrochemistry, 68, 97
Ideas, resistance to new, 305–306
Iliad (Homer), 22, 23
Illustrations
of cortex, 167
by Leonardo da Vinci, 57–58
in Vesalius’ work, 61–62
Imhotep, 7, 9, 12, 15, 16
Imperception, 150,153
Ingham, Sr. James, 171, 172
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), 236
Inquisition, 67, 72
Integrative Action of the Nervous System, The (Sherrington), 231
Intellect, and corpus callosum, 291–295
International Medical Conference, London, 1881, 155–158, 169, 219 (p.357)
defense of animal research at, 169, 171
International Physiological Congresses, 226
Involuntary activity, 76, 77, 95–96
Iran, 55
Isis (goddess), 16
Isler, Hansruedi, 98
Italy
dissection, in 13th century, 56–57
Galen and, 39–51
Levi–Montalcini and, 287–288
study of electricity in, 109–115
Vesalius and, 60–61
Itard, Jean, 193
Jackson, John Hughlings, 149–150, 153, 162
Charcot and, 190
Ferrierand, 164, 167, 171
Joffroy, Alex, 188
Johns Hopkins University, 291
Journal de Médecine, 104
Journal des Sçavans, 97
Journal of Physiology, 218, 251, 261
Kekulé, Friedrich August, 270–271
King’s College Hospital, 157, 169
Knee jerk. see Reflex
Koch, Robert, 219
Kölliker, Albrecht von, 197, 202, 210–211, 214
Korsakoff’s disease, 97
Kragh, Helge, 309
Krüger, Johann, 104
Kuhn, Thomas, 307
La Fléche, 70, 72
La Fontaine, 82, 83
La Mettrie, Jules Offray de, 82
Lancet, 277
Langley, John Newport, 218–219, 261–262, 263, 286
Loewi and, 268
Larrey, Baron Dominique–Jean, 128
Lashley, Karl, 284, 292–293
Latah, 192, 193
Laycock, Thomas, 162
Leborgne (patient). see Tan
Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System (Charcot), 184, 186
Leiden, University of, 240
Lelong (patient), 144–145
Leonardo da Vinci, 57–58
“Lesions of the Left Half of the Brain Coincident with the Forgetting of the Signs of Thought” (M. Dax), 146
“Letter on the China Root” (Vesalius), 66
Levi, Guiseppe, 287
Levi–Montalcini, Rita, 281–300, 287–288, 303, 304
on chance, 307
NGF and, 288–290
Levy–Agresti, Jerre, 298
Lewandowsky, Max, 261
Leydenjar, 104, 107, 108
Leyton, A.S.F., 229–230
Liljestrand, Professor G., 252
Lippmann, Gabriel, 239
Lister, Joseph, 168
Ferrier’s trial and, 171
Sherrington and, 220
surgery and, 172–174
Liverpool, University College of, 226
Localization of Cerebral Disease (Ferrier), 167
Locke, John, 99
Loewi, Guida, 279
Loewi, Otto, 259–279, 303
background of, 267
education of, 267–268
Nazism and, 278
research of, 268–272, 273
in USA, 278–279
wins Nobel Prize, 278
London, University of, 220
Loom, as metaphor, 2
(p.358) Lorenzini, Stefano, 107
Lou Gehrig’s Disease. see Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Louis XIII, king of France, 179
Lower, Richard, 89,90
Lucas, Keith, 241–242, 248, 250
Adrian and, 242–243, 252
death of, 243
improves string galvanometer, 242, 244–245
Lusitania, 244
Luther, Martin, 61
Lyric poetry, 24
Macewen, William, 172–174
Magendie, François, 137
Magnus, Rudolf, 226
Majno, Guido, 51
Malebranche, Father, 82
Man on His Nature (Sherrington), 234
Manic–depressive illness, 96
Mann, Horace, 4
Marat, Jean–Paul, 105–106
Marcus Aurelius, 41, 50–51
Marey, Etienne–Jules, 239
Marianus, 45
Marie, Pierre, 189
Martin’s Act, 170
Materialists, 82
Matthews, Brian, 254
Maurice of Nassau, 71
Maximilian I, of Bavaria, 71
McCullough, Warren, 292
McDougall, William, 291, 292
“Medulla”, 92, 96
Melatonin, 75
Memory, 92–93
Meningitis, 13, 32, 87,166,168,174
Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare), 37
Mersenne, Father Marin, 72–73, 79, 80, 304
Methodists, 39
Metu, 15, 17
Meyssonnier, Lazare, 79, 80
Micrographia (Hooke), 198
Microscope
Cajal and, 207–211
early, 102, 198–200
improvements of, 200
synapses and, 212, 222
Millington, Thomas, 89
Mind–body problem
Descartes’ solution to, 77–79
misinterpreted, 77–79
reactions to, 79–83
Sherrington and, 231, 234
Minz, Bruno, 274
Miryachit, 192, 193
Mithradates Eupator, 49–50
Mithradaticum, 50
Mixed dominance, 148
Monde, Le (Descartes), 72–73
Mondino de’ Luzzi, 56
Monro, Alexander (Primus), 106–107
Monsieur Grat (Descartes’ dog), 81–82
Montaigne, Michel de, 83
More, Henry, 77
Mott, F. W., 226
Movement, 94–95
Multiple sclerosis, 183–184
Munk, Hermann, 165
Muscarine, 262, 266
Muscles. see Reflex
Muscular dystrophy, 141
Musée de l’Homme, 74
Musschenbroek, Petrus van, 104
Myasthenia gravis, 99, 276–277
Myelin sheath, 199, 201, 209
Myers, Frederick, 1, 2
Myers, Ronald, 92, 293–294
Bykov and, 294
Myotonia congenita, 30
Mythology, 16–17, 18
Napoleon Bonaparte, 128, 132, 135–136
Narcolepsy, 97
National Hospital for the Parlysed and Epileptic, 162, 164, 174
Nemesius, Bishop of Emesa, 53–54
Neostigmine, 277
(p.359) Nepthys (god), 16
Nerve growth factor (NGF), 288–290
antiserum and, 289–290
Nervous system, 197
coding in, 239–258
Descartes’ machine theory of, 74–73
18th century electrical theories of, 103–115
fusion theory of neural transmission, 201–203, 205, 209
Galen’s theory of, 44–46, 64
microscope and, 200–202
neuron theory of, 211–214
neurotransmitters and, 259–279
organization of, 281–286
17th century theory of, 101–102
Sherrington’s research on, 220–233
Vesalius’ theory of, 64–65
see also Brain
Nestorian Christians, 55
“Neurology”, 91
“Neuron”, 197, 211
Neurosis, 187
Neurotransmitters, 259–279
New England Magazine, 134
New York Historical Society, 11
New York University, 278, 279
Newcastle, Marquess of, 82
Newcomer, H.S., 246
Newton, Sir Isaac, 101, 119, 304, 305
Nicon, 39, 40
Nicotine, 266
Nobel Prize
to Adrian, 236, 251–252, 253
to Berger, proposed, 255
to Cajal, 3, 215
to Cannon, 5
to Dale, 5, 278
to Eccles, 236
to Einthoven, 240
to Erlanger, 248
to Gasser, 248
to Golgi, 3, 215
to Hubel, 282
to Levi–Montalcini, 290
to Loewi, 278
to Ragnar, 233
to Sherrington, 1, 99, 251
to Sperry, 2, 282
to Wiesel, 248
Nollet, Abbæ Jean Antoine, 104
Noradrenaline, 265
Oberlin College, 283
Obervations sur la phrenologie (Spurzheim), 130
O’Brien, H. A., 192
“Observations Seeming to Prove the Coincidence of Speech Disorders with a Lesion in the Left Hemisphere of the Brain” (G. Dax), 146
Odyssey (Homer), 22
Oliver, George, 261
Olympic Games, 22
On Diseases II (Hippocrates), 32
On Injuries of the Head (Hippocrates), 30, 32
On Medical Experience (Galen), 41
On Regimen (Hippocrates), 33
On the Bones (Galen), 65
On the Brain (Galen), 42
On the Functions of the Brain (Gall), 127,128
On the Sacred Disease (Hippocrates), 30, 31
On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body (Galen), 44, 45
Optic chiasm, 293–294
Optic nerve
Galen and, 45, 102
Sperry and, 284–285
Von Leeuwenhoek and, 199
Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 11
Osborne, Jonathan, 147
Oscar II, king of Sweden, 215
Oscillograph, 247
Osiris (god), 16, 18
Owen, Richard, 306
Oxford University
Sherrington and, 231–233
(p.360)
Willis and, 86–88
Padua, University of, 60
Panacea (goddess), 23
Paracelsus, 68, 87
Paracentetes, 19
Parasympathetic nervous system. see Autonomic nervous system
Parkinson, James, 185
Parkinson’s disease, 95, 278
Charcot and, 184–187
confused with multiple sclerosis, 184
Passions of the Soul (Descartes), 73, 74
Pasteur, Louis, 309
Pathological left–handers, 148
“Pathology”, 235
Pavia, University of, 203, 205
Pavlov, Ivan, 294
Peloponnesian War, 27
Penfield, Wilder, 230, 233
Pericles, 25, 27
Petty, Dr. Richard, 90
Pflüger, Eduard, 219
Phemius, 22
Philip II, king of Spain, 67
Phlegm, 31,78
Photography, 181, 191
Photoreceptors, 75
Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, 131
Phrenology
Combe and, 131, 132
criticism of, 132–135, 137
endorsers of, 135
Spur zheim and, 130
in USA, 131–132
Phrenology Examined (Flourens), 132–133, 136
Physiognomy, 122
Physiological Society, 226
Physiology, term introduced, 235
Physostigmine, 271–272, 276–277
Picot, Abbé, 82
Pineal gland, 75–76, 78–79, 80–81
Pinel, Philippe, 179
Pitres, 190
Pituitary gland, 78
Plague, in Athens, 27
Planck, Max, 306
Plato, 36, 46
Pliny the Elder, 40
Pneumatists, 39
Poe, Edgar Allan, 135, 151
Poison, 49–50
Polidori, Dr. John, 115, 116
Polio, 188
Pordage, Samuel, 91
Poseidonius of Byzantium, 54
Prayer
in Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, 14
in Hippocratic medicine, 33
Prefrontal cortex, term introduced, 306
Prescriptions
in Egypt, 14, 17
Galen and, 49–51
Priestley, Joseph, 308
Primitive Remedies (Wesley), 105
Pringle, John, 105
Prometheus legends, 115–116
Proprioceptive system, 223, 249
“Psychology”, 91
Ptolemies, 34
Ptolomy Soter, 28
Purkyně cells, 200
Purkyně, Jan Evangelista, 200
Pythagoras, 25, 31
Ramón, Don Justo, 206–207
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago. see Cajal, Santiago Ramón y
Rampan, Edouard de, 128
Reciprocal innervation, 226–227
Recollections of My Life (Cajal), 206, 216
Recovery, from braindamage, 168
Sherrington and, 230–231
Redi, Francesco, 107
(p.361) Reductionists, 3
Reflex
Descartes and, 76
knee jerk, 222–223
before Sherrington, 221
Sherrington’s work on, 221–233
term introduced, 91
Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord (Sherrington), 233
Refractory period, 240
Refutation of the Slanders of a Madman Against the Anatomy of Hippocrates and Galen, A (Sylvius), 65
Regius, Henricus, 80
Reil, Johann Christian, 125, 200
Religion
Descartes and, 72–74
in Egypt, 14,17–18
in Greece, 21–24, 33
in Iran, and preservation of medical texts, 5 5
medicine breaks from, 26
role of, 4
sects of, and Galen, 39–40
Swedenborg and, 121
13 th century dissection and, 56–57
ventricles and, 53–54,58
Rembrandt, 92
Remen, Lazar, 277
Resistance, to new ideas, 305–306
Rete mirabile
Berengario da Carpi and, 58
Galen and, 47
Mondino de’Luzzi and, 56
Vesalius and, 61, 63–64
Reticulum, 203, 209
Retina, 45, 47
Revista Trimestral de HistologÍa Normal y Patológica (journal), 209
Rhazes, 55
Richer, Paul, 194
Rickets, 141
Riley–Day syndrome, 289–290
Ringer’s solution, 269
Rochester, University of, 292
Rockefeller Foundation, 274
Rolando, Luigi, 160
Rolleston, Sir Humphry Davy, 144
Rose, Caleb, 217
Rosetta Stone, 10–11
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA), 170
Royal Society of London, 90,105, 108, 164, 199, 236, 279
Ruffer, Armand, 220
Rush, Benjamin, 130
Saffron, as stain, 199–200
Sakkara pyramid, 7
Salpêtrière, 147
Charcot and, 178–196
history of, 179
San (Saint) Diego, 67
Sappho, 24
Schafer, Edward, 261
Schleiden, Matthias, 201
Schultze, Max, 202
Schuster, E., 226
Schwann cells, 201
Schwann, Theodor, 201
Scratch reflex, 228
Scribonius Largus, 49,103
Sechenov, Ivan M., 221, 228
Secret Book of the Physician, 9
Serendipity. see Chance
Set (god), 16
Sewall, Thomas, 132
Shakespeare, William, 37, 182, 271
Shapiro, Arthur and Elaine, 193
Sheldon, Gilbert, 87, 89, 91
Shelley, Mary, 115–117
Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 115, 116
Sherrington, Ethel Wright, 220, 226,
Sherrington, Sir Charles Scott, 1–2, 51, 217–237, 249, 274, 304, 305, 309
background of, 217–218
cholera and, 219
death of, 235–236
diphtheria and, 220
(p.362)
early research of, 218–219
education of, 218
on Ferrier, 175
Forbes and, 244
introduces “synapse”, 197, 212
legacy of, 236–238
Liverpool students of, 226
maps motor cortex, 228–230
nervous system research of, 220–233
Oxford students of, 233
on Willis, 99
wins Nobel Prize, 251
World War I and, 232–233
Shingles, 225
Sight, 165
Silliman Lectures (Yale University), 231
Silver nitrate, 204
Simarro, Luis, 208, 209
Skinner, B.F., 308
Skulls. see Phrenology
Sleep
disorders of, 97
explained by Descartes, 76–77
Sleeping sickness, 87
Smell, 165, 256–257
Smith, Edwin, 10–11, 17
Smith, Grafton Elliot, 135
Société Anatomique, 141–142
Société d’Anthropologic, 139, 140, 142, 145
Société de Chirurgie (Surgical Society), 142
Société Médicale des Hôspitaux, 184
Société Phrénologique, 139
Sophocles, 26
Soul
Descartes and, 77–83
Willis and, 90–91, 99
Spain
Cajal in, 206–209
Sherrington in, 219
Vesalius in, 67
Speech, 137–145
therapy for, 147–148
Sperry, Norma Dupree, 285
Sperry, Roger W, 2, 92, 281–300, 304
Bykov and, 294
character of, 281
chemical guidance of axons and, 281, 283–286, 290
corpus callosum and, 281, 290–295, 300
death of, 300
education of, 282–283
nature of consciousness and, 299–300
split–brain research and, 295–299
Sphygmograph, 184
Spinal roots, 223–225
Spurzheim, Johann, 135
Combe and, 131
criticism of, 134
death of, 131, 132
on Descartes, 136
phrenology and, 129–130
Sri Lanka, 4
St. Augustine of Hippo, 54
St. Thomas’ Hospital, 218, 219
Stains. see Histology
Starling, Ernest, 263
Steno, Nicolaus, 3, 120
on Descartes, 81
nervous system theories of, 102
on Willis, 97–98
Stephan van Calcar, Jan, 60
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 151
Stifft, 124
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Stevenson), 151
String galvanometer, 240
Forbes and, 244
Lucas improves, 242, 245–245
Strokes
in Corpus Hippocraticum, 32
Galen and, 48–49
Studies on the Cerebral Cortex (Cajal), 216
Stupidity, 96
Substantia cinerea, 1
Surgery
in 13th century, 57
(p.363)
in 16th century, 68
in 19th century, 172–174
missing from Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, 14
Sweden, 119–121
Swedenborg, Emanuel, 3, 4, 117, 119–121, 303
Descartes and, 74
Swedenborgian (New Jerusalem) Church, 121
Sylvius, Jacobus, 306
death of, 67
reacts to Fabrica, 65–66
teaches Vesalius, 60
Sympathetic nervous system. see Autonomic nervous system
Synapse, 1, 197, 212, 222, 259, 260, 266–278
Syndrome, term defined, 177
Tabula rasa, 99
Tabulae anatomicae (Vesalius), 60, 61, 63
Tan (patient), 142–144, 159
Taveau, René, 265
Technology, 4
Telephoros (god), 23
Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 170
Tertullian, 35
Thalamus, 95
Thales, 24–25, 31
Theriac, 49–51
Theriaké (Galen), 50
Thessalus of Tralles, 40
Thévenot, Monsieur, 81, 97
Thoth (god), 9, 16
“Three Princes of Serendip, The”, 4
Time, ripe for discovery, 305–306
Times, London, 171, 173
Titanic, 244
Titian, 60
Todd, Robert Bentley, 160
Tooth, Howard Henry, 189
Torpedo fish, 107–108
Tourette’s Syndrome. see Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
Tragedy, 26
Traite de I’homme (Descartes), 72, 73
Traits, of scientists, 302–304
Triage, 13
Trinity College, Cambridge, 241, 242, 243, 248
Trousseau, Armand, 145
Tuberculosis, 219
Sperry and, 294–295
Tulp, Nicolaas, 92
University College, Liverpool, 226
Uppsala University, 119
Userhat (scribe), 15
Van Gehuchten, Arthur, 212
Van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 102, 198–200
Van Wagenen, William, 292
Varolio, 65
Velpeau, 139
Ventricles
Church doctrine and, 53–54, 58
Descartes and, 75–76
Galen and, 47–48, 54
Leonardo da Vinci and, 58
replaced by cerebrum, 92–93
Vesalius and, 63–65
Ventricular localization, 54
Vesalius, Andreas, 53, 68, 302, 304, 307
death of, 68
education of, 59–60
later years of, 67–68
pineal gland and, 79, 80
questions Galen’s conclusions, 53, 60–65
Vesling, John, 92
Victoria, queen of England, 131,170
Victoria Society for the Protection of Animals from Vivisection, 158, 159,170
Viets, Henry, 233, 236–237
Villers, Charles, 133
Villiers, Christophe, 80
Virchow, Rudolf, 219
(p.364) Virtuosi, 87, 89–90, 91, 304
Vivisection, of animals
defense of, in London Times, 173–174
Ferrierand, 163–165
Fritsch, Hitzig and, 160–162
Galen and, 43–44
Goltz, Ferrier and, 155,157–158
Hippocrates and, 4
Vivisection, of humans, 34–35
Vogel, Philip, 296
Volta, Alessandro, 113–115, 306
Vulpian, Edme Felix Alfred, 180, 189
multiple sclerosis and, 183–184
Parkinson’s Disease and, 185
Waldeyer, Wilhelm, 197, 211, 219
Walker, Mary, 276–277
Walsh, John, 107–108
Warren, John C, 131–132, 135
Washington University, 246, 247, 248, 288
Waterlow, Ernest Albert, 167
Way of an Investigator, The (Cannon), 309
Weinhold, Karl August, 115, 117
Weiss, Paul, 283
Wellcome, Henry, 264
Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories, 264–265
Wernicke, Carl, 150, 153
Wesley, John, 105,106
West Riding Lunatic Asylum, 162–163
West Riding Lunatic Asylum Medical Reports (journal), 163
Westphal, Carl, 222
Whitman, Walt, 135
Whytt, Robert, 221
Wiesel, Thorsten, 282
Wilde, Oscar, 170
Wilks, Samuel, 184, 218
“William Wilson” (Poe), 151
Willis, Elizabeth, 89
Willis, Mary Fell, 87, 89
Willis,Thomas, 68, 83, 85–99,101, 194, 221, 304
books of, 88–89
brain theories of, 92–96
character of, 86
contributions of, 98–99
death of, 89
Descartes contrasted to, 85, 99
education of, 86–87
language of, 91–92
on pituitary gland, 78
as psychiatrist, 96–97
virtuosi and, 87, 89–90
Winkler, Johann, 104
Wisconsin, University of, 245
Wittman, Blanche, 195
Woodworth, Robert S., 226
World War I, 266, 273
Adrian and, 243
Forbes and, 244
Sherrington and, 232–233
World War II
Bergerand, 255
Levi–Montalcini and, 287
Loewi and, 278
nerve damage in, 284
paratrooper injured in, 295–297
Wren, Christopher, 89–90
Yale University, 231, 292
Yellow bile, 31
Yeo, George, 157, 158, 169
Ferrier’s trial and, 171–172
Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, 284, 293
Zeus (god), 22, 23
Zotterman, Yngve, 249–251, 252, 306