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Environmental Change and GlobalizationDouble Exposures$
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Robin Leichenko and Karen O'Brien

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195177329

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177329.001.0001

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Uneven Outcomes and Growing Inequalities

Uneven Outcomes and Growing Inequalities

(p.57) 5 Uneven Outcomes and Growing Inequalities
Environmental Change and Globalization

Robin M. Leichenko

Karen L. O'Brien

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores the uneven consequences of global environmental change and globalization for agriculture and rural livelihoods. The first part of the chapter examines two of the most far-reaching and transformative types of global change, namely climate change and trade liberalization. It then presents a detailed case study of the pathway of outcome double exposure in Indian agriculture. The case study shows that the outcomes of climate change and trade liberalization in India are not randomly distributed, but instead are systematically linked to contextual conditions that influence both exposure and capacity to respond to each process. Growing inequalities linked to both processes can be seen at the regional, district, and village levels, and across gender groups. Global environmental change and globalization processes together reinforce uneven outcomes among farmers and rural communities, creating both double winners and double losers.

Keywords:   agriculture, rural livelihoods, climate change, trade liberalization, India, winners, losers, gender

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