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Environmental Change and GlobalizationDouble Exposures$
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Robin Leichenko and Karen O'Brien

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195177329

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177329.001.0001

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Pathways of Double Exposure

Pathways of Double Exposure

(p.42) 4 Pathways of Double Exposure
Environmental Change and Globalization

Robin M. Leichenko

Karen L. O'Brien

Oxford University Press

This chapter elaborates on the double exposure framework through a description of some of the possible pathways of interaction between global environmental change and globalization. These pathways, which are termed “outcome double exposure,” “context double exposure,” and “feedback double exposure,” each describe specific types of linkages between the two processes. The pathway of outcome double exposure shows how overlapping exposure to the two processes can exacerbate regional and social inequality. The pathway of context double exposure shows how the processes, both separately and together, can increase the vulnerability of individuals, communities, and social groups to shocks and stresses of all types. The pathway of feedback double exposure emphasizes how global change processes can generate responses that can amplify the processes, leading to new cycles of double exposure. The chapter also considers the implications of these interactions for issues of equity, resilience and sustainability.

Keywords:   inequality, equity, vulnerability, resilience, sustainability, outcome, context, feedbacks

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