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Environmental Change and GlobalizationDouble Exposures$
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Robin Leichenko and Karen O'Brien

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195177329

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177329.001.0001

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(p.3) 1 Introduction
Environmental Change and Globalization

Robin M. Leichenko

Karen L. O'Brien

Oxford University Press

This introductory chapter defines processes of global environmental change and globalization. It shows that although both processes have been going on for centuries, the speed, scale, and spatial extent of each process has dramatically increased over the past few decades. The chapter also introduces the concept of double exposure. Double exposure is a metaphor for cases where a particular region, sector, social group, or ecological area is simultaneously confronted by exposure to both global environmental change and globalization. Double exposure is also an analytical framework that highlights the interactions between global environmental change and globalization. The framework shows how these interactions are contributing to growing inequalities, increasing vulnerabilities, and accelerating and unsustainable rates of change. At the same time, the double exposure framework reveals possibilities for using the interactions to generate openings and opportunities that will enhance human security.

Keywords:   double exposure, global environmental change, globalization, human security, double exposure framework

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