This introductory chapter defines processes of global environmental change and globalization. It shows that although both processes have been going on for centuries, the speed, scale, and spatial extent of each process has dramatically increased over the past few decades. The chapter also introduces the concept of double exposure. Double exposure is a metaphor for cases where a particular region, sector, social group, or ecological area is simultaneously confronted by exposure to both global environmental change and globalization. Double exposure is also an analytical framework that highlights the interactions between global environmental change and globalization. The framework shows how these interactions are contributing to growing inequalities, increasing vulnerabilities, and accelerating and unsustainable rates of change. At the same time, the double exposure framework reveals possibilities for using the interactions to generate openings and opportunities that will enhance human security.
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