This chapter continues the discussion of the issues raised by the chapter 6, focusing on the issue of ontological commitment. The chapter argues that Buridan’s theory of ampliation, reconstructed in terms of quantification with restricted variables, provides a genuine third alternative to the opposing modern views of Quine and “the Meinongians.” Furthermore, the chapter argues that Buridan’s theory thus reconstructed says “all the right things” according to Quine in its object-language; however, it still seems to side with the Meinongians in its meta-language. However, this is just a feature of the reconstruction: “the real Buridan” does not have this distinction, but works out his natural language semantics under conditions of what Tarski described as “semantic closure.”
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