Disturbances of autobiographical memory can result from organic pathologies such as focal brain lesions and neurodegenerative diseases that affect brain areas critical for autobiographical memory processing. Likewise, autobiographical memory can be severely affected in psychiatric syndromes associated with metabolic brain changes in similar brain regions as in neurological diseases. This chapter presents an overview of memory systems and their associated brain regions. It then gives examples of autobiographical memory disorders in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Furthermore, it shows the similarity of both to the condition of psychogenic amnesia.
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