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Distinctiveness and Memory$
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R. Reed Hunt and James B. Worthen

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195169669

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.001.0001

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Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Distinctiveness Effects: Toward an Integrative Framework

Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Distinctiveness Effects: Toward an Integrative Framework

Chapter:
(p.65) 4 Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Distinctiveness Effects: Toward an Integrative Framework
Source:
Distinctiveness and Memory
Author(s):

Mark A. McDaniel

Lisa Geraci

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0004

This chapter considers two general classes of processes: encoding processes and retrieval processes. These two classes are presented as explanations of distinctiveness effects. The contemporary experiments directed at competitive tests of encoding versus retrieval explanations are then reviewed. The upshot is that no clear conclusion seems evident from the existing literature. The chapter reconsiders the findings within an organizational framework that considers encoding and retrieval processes orthogonally with two categories of distinctiveness: primary distinctiveness and secondary distinctiveness. It argues that under the lens of this analysis, some informative patterns begin to emerge. Finally, it describes several testable hypotheses using the encoding/retrieval distinction and suggests that primary and secondary distinctiveness effects may be mediated by different memory processes.

Keywords:   encoding processes, retrieval processes, distinctiveness effects, memory, primary distinctiveness, secondary distinctiveness, experiments

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