Justice in the Gym
The conclusion reviews the major changes in American physical education across the twentieth century as well as persistent controversies and challenges. Foremost is the field’s continuing preoccupation with “difference” and its practices that thwart, rather than facilitate, justice in the gym. The conclusion attributes this problem to systemic obstacles in American society as well as physical education’s unique power to insert discourses of the body and difference into daily life. Throughout the twentieth century, however, some white and black physical educators took more progressive stances; they dispensed with conventional binaries of difference, attached human diversity to history and culture rather than biology, and insisted that “difference” become a creative force in the gym, not an obstacle to be ignored or overcome.
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