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The Missing Link in CognitionOrigins of self-reflective consciousness$
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Herbert S. Terrace and Janet Metcalfe

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195161564

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161564.001.0001

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Do Nonhuman Primates Have Episodic Memory?

Do Nonhuman Primates Have Episodic Memory?

Chapter:
(p.225) 9 Do Nonhuman Primates Have Episodic Memory?
Source:
The Missing Link in Cognition
Author(s):

Bennett L. Schwartz

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161564.003.0009

This chapter addresses the issue that was raised by Endel. The chapter describes some experiments in which a female chimpanzee engages in behavior that was previously thought to be possible only in human beings. One of the central questions raised by this chapter is whether nunhuman animals have self-reflective consciousness. The idea that human memory and nonhuman memory are different is also shared by numerous philosophers throughout written history as well as many current biologists and psychologists. The idea is based not simply on received wisdom but also on the conspicuous differences in what humans and nonhumans do. The chapter reviews several prior studies of chimpanzee memory, with a focus on research that has used variations on delayed-response methods. It argues at least one chimpanzee memory that is organized independently of stimulation from the immediate environment and constitutes recall as opposed to recognition.

Keywords:   memory, Endel, female chimpanzee, self-reflective consciousness, delayed-response methods

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