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Hearing in TimePsychological Aspects of Musical Meter$

Justin London

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195160819

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195160819.001.0001

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(p.191) INDEX

(p.191) INDEX

Source:
Hearing in Time
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
accent, metrical, 19–23, 26, 53, 61, 65
defined, 19, 23
as listener-generated, 19, 25–26
in NI-meters, 111–114, 115
acousmatic space, 5, 6
Africa, music of, 68, 88, 117, 126
West African Gahu drumming in, 85, 111–115, 112 ex. 7.2 & 7.3
analysis, metric, 62–68
of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 89–99
cyclical representations in, 64–69, 72, 162
dot notation in, 62, 62 ex. 4.3
wave analysis in, 63–64, 63 ex. 4.4, 64 ex. 4.5
analysis, rhythmic, 60–61
Arom, Simha, 113, 126–129, 134
attending.
attentional behavior, 11–12, 15–17, 25, 164
meter as, 6, 9–18, 64
See also entrainment
attentional framework, 17, 43, 51, 87
as result of integrative function of meter, 34
See also hierarchy
attentional peaks, 23, 30, 77, 106, 107 fig. 7.4, 141, 162
in cyclical representations of meter, 64–65, 68–69, 76
attunement.
Babbitt, Milton
Composition for Twelve Instruments, 24, 24 ex. 1.5, 85,
Bach, Johann Sebastian
C Major Prelude from Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, 40–41, 41 ex. 2.1 & fig. 2.4
“Goldberg” Variations, 56, 57 ex. 3.6b
beat-classes, 106–110, 115, 140
beat-cycles, 66, 70–71, 76–78
formation of, 116–140
maximal evenness and, 105
in music of Africa, 112–114
beats, 20–23, 27–30, 31–32
interpolation of missing, 85–86, 118–119
NI-beats, 106–110
subdivisions and, 19, 34–38, 46
See also tactus
Beethoven, Ludwig van
An die ferne Geliebte, op. 98, no. 6, 81–82, 82 ex. 5.4, 84 fig. 5.2, 88, 95
Fifth Symphony, 89–99
(p.192)
Ninth Symphony, second movement, 55–56, 55 ex. 3.5, 58
“Ode to Joy,” 51–52, 52 ex. 3.2, 53 ex. 3.3
Piano Sonata, op. 2, no. 3, 56–57, 57 ex. 3.6C
behavior, meter as, 4–6, 25, 166
learned, 143–144, 153, 157
studies of, 12–14
See also entrainment
Bernstein, Leonard
“America” from West Side Story, 129, 129 ex. 8.6 & 8.7
Bolton, T. L., 28–29
Brahms, Johannes
Symphony no. 4, first movement, 53–54, 53 ex. 3.6d
Bregman, Albert, 4, 5, 30
Brubeck, Dave
Blue Rondo a la Turk, 100, 101 ex. 7.1
Butler, Charles, 15–16, 16 ex. 1.2
Caplin, William, 55
cardinality, 68
See also N-cycle
Carnatic.
Chopin, Frederic
Etude in E major, op.10, no.3, 147–148, 147 ex. 9.2, 150
Polonaise in A major, 63, 63 ex. 4.4
Clarke, Eric, 16, 32, 34, 144–145, 148, 170 n6
Cohn, Richard, 83, 83 ex. 5.5
contradiction.
Cooper, Grosvenor & Leonard Meyer, 20, 32, 61 ex. 4.2
cycles, 64–69, 66 ex. 4.3, 68 ex. 4.5
in isochronous and non-isochronous meters, 100–103
maximal evenness and, 103–106
well-formedness and, 72–78
entrainment, 4, 6, 12, 14, 17–19, 25–26, 92, 97, 161–162
circular representations of meter and, 64–69
ecological validity and, 142, 154
limits to, 27–30, 48, 51, 52
metric dissonance and, 84–88
time discrete vs. time continuous models of, 20–21
well-formedness constraints and, 77–78
envelope, temporal or metric.
Epstein, David, 32, 89
expectation.
expressive variation, 28, 52, 72, 75, 77, 79
effect on timing ratios, 33–34, 35
Many Meters Hypothesis and, 153–156, 159
recent research in, 144–153
figure-ground relationship, 48, 50, 58
Fraisse, Paul, 21, 29, 31, 34
“Frere Jacques,” 13, 56, 57 ex. 3.6a
Gentner, Donald, 156, 158
Gibson, James J.
ecological approach to perception, 9–10, 14
Gjerdingen, Robert, 4, 30, 157
Habanera, 125, 125 ex. 8.2
half-measure, 68, 68 fig. 4.5, 73, 77, 126, 134, 172–173 n.3, 175 n.7
maximal evenness and, 105–106
“Happy Birthday,” 152
Hasty, Christopher, 8, 23, 62–63
Haydn, Josef,
Symphony in D major no. 104 (“London”), finale, 151 ex. 9.4d, 152
hierarchy
circular representations of meter and, 65–69, 162
maximal evenness and 121, 131, 133, 134, 137, 141
meter as, 17, 25
metric accent and, 19–20
metric complexity and, 164–165
metric depth and, 18–19, 25, 33, 37–38
metric limits and, 27, 46
(p.193)
tactus level and, 32–33
well-formedness and, 72–73, 77–78
Hindustani music.
Holden, John, 145, 146
hypermeter, 19, 25, 81, 162
in non-Western music, 134
I-meters.
India, music of, 68, 137–140, 174 n.5
interonset intervals (IOI), 4, 27
subdivision and, 35
subjective rhythmization and, 33–34
tactus and, 31–33
indifference interval, 31
invariance, 5, 9–10, 23–24, 25–26, 84, 143
in generating or maintaining meter, 15, 16–17, 50–51
shift in pattern of, 53, 55
James, William, 10, 14
Jones, Mari Riess, 11–12, 13, 18, 21, 33, 50–51, 63
just noticeable difference (JND), 33–34
Kahneman, Daniel, 11
Karnatak music.
Koch, Heinrich, 15, 21, 31–32, 61 ex. 4.1
Krebs, Harald, 32, 81, 84, 87, 96, 98
Large, Edward, 20–21, 171–172 n5
Large, Edward & Mari Riess Jones, 20–21, 22 fig. 1.1, 63
Lerdahl, Fred & Ray Jackendoff, 19–20, 32, 51, 65
dot notation, 62, 62 ex. 4.3
well-formedness rules, 69–72
levels, metric.
limits, metric, 27–46, 72, 75
100ms limit, 27, 28–29, 35–37, 42–43, 46–47, 72
1.5–2.0 second limit, 27, 30, 31, 42
5–6 second limit, 30, 46–47
Locke, David, 111–113, 134
London, Justin, 62, 103, 169 n1, 173 n2, 174 n1
Many Meters Hypothesis, 153–160
maximal evenness, 7, 103–107, 114–115, 162–163, 174 n4, 175 n1
NI-meters and, 130–132, 133–137, 141
maximal pulse salience, 31, 38
See also tactus
measure, measures, 40–46, 51, 53–55
cyclical representations of meter and, 64–65
Mendelssohn, Felix
Midsummer Night's Dream, scherzo, 63, 64 ex. 4.5
meter, 4–6, 25, 166
meter, accentless, 132
meter, overdetermined, 56–58, 57 ex. 3.6b
meter, underdetermined, 56–58, 57 ex. 3.6c
meters, additive and multiplicative,
no distinction between, 100, 114, 162, 166–167
meters, isochronous, 72–73, 100–103
compared to non-isochronous meters, 103, 109, 110, 111, 115
maximal evenness and, 103, 105
meters, non-isochronous, 100, 103, 125
accent and, 111, 115
beat-cycle formation and, 116–117
maximal evenness and, 103–105, 114
NI-rhythm and, 118–125
tempo and, 110–111, 115
timing constraints and, 106–110
metric ambiguity, 79–80, 85–86, 88, 104–105
in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 92. 93 ex. 6.3, 98–99
metric dissonance, 80–85, 86–88
as lacking psychological basis, 88
“polymeter” and, 50
(p.194) metric malleability, 15, 48–50, 58, 79–80, 86, 88, 170 n5
in Beethoven's “Ode to Joy,” 51, 52 ex. 3.2
metrical preference rules (MPRs).
Michon, John, 30, 34
Morris, Robert, 117
Mozart, Wolfgang A.
Don Giovanni, Act I (finale), 83
Piano Sonata no.11 in A major K.331 (“Alla Turca”), 146–147, 146 ex. 9.1
Symphony no. 40 in G Minor, K.550, Minuet, 82–83, 84, 83 ex. 5.5
Symphony no. 41 in C Major, K.551 (“Jupiter”), fourth movement, 62 ex. 4.3
MPRs.
multiplicative meters.
music, nonwestern, 6, 7, 72, 88, 115, 162
MWFRs.
N-cycles, 68–69, 78, 162
beat-cycle formation and, 116–117, 132, 140
metrical types and, 73, 142
in music of India, 137–138
See also subdivision
Neisser, Ulric, 10, 12
Nketia, J. H. Kwabena, 52–53, 68, 128, 128 ex. 8.4, 129 ex. 8.5, 130 ex. 8.7, 167
nominalism, metric, 163
oscillations, metric, 21–23, 22 figs. 1.1 & 1.2
perception, ecological approach, 9–11
phase relationships
in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 90, 94–95
well-formedness and, 72, 74 fig. 4.6c
polymeter, 49–50
polyrhythm, 49–50, 49 ex. 3.1
Povel, Dirk-Jan & Peter Essens, 20–21, 175 n6
Powers, Harold & Richard Widdess, 137–138
Pressing, Jeffrey, 5, 158, 164–165
pulse.
See tactus
Repp, Bruno, 13, 29, 33, 150, 176 n2 & n3
rhythmopoeia, 60–61, 61 ex. 4.1
Riepel, Joseph, 53, 54 ex. 3.4
Rothstein, William, 81–84, 82 ex. 5.4, 173 n.1
Schumann, Robert
Fourth Symphony, Scherzo, 61 ex. 4.2
Scruton, Roger, 5
Seashore, Carl, 145, 146
Sloboda, John, 148
subcycles, 65–66, 76
maximal evenness and, 103–104, 130–132
timing ratios and, 73, 75–77
in well-formedness constraints, 72–73, 74 fig. 4.6
subdivisions, 7, 18–19, 19 ex. 1.4, 25, 46–47, 58, 76, 78, 114, 167
in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 90, 93, 93 ex. 6.3 & 6.4, 94, 95 ex. 6.6, 95–96, 98–99
in circular representations of meter, 65–69, 66 fig. 4.3, 67 fig. 4.4, 162
in graphs of metric periodicities, 38–43, 39 fig. 2.2, 40 fig 2.3, 41 fig. 2.4, 44 fig. 2.6, 45 tbs. 2.4 & 2.5
relation of beats and, 34–38, 36 fig. 2.1, 37 tbl. 2.2, 38 tbl. 2.3, 172 n6
(p.195)
time signatures and, 70
timing ratios in NI-meters and, 104, 106, 108, 115
See also N-cycles
subjective rhythmization, 14–15, 28–36, 113–115, 170 n4
synchronization, 29–30
See also entrainment
syncopation, 14, 14 ex. 1.3, 16, 21, 86–87
tactus, 17–18, 25, 31–33, 46, 58–59
beat-cycle and, 68, 77
in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 90–91, 96, 98–99
in diagrams of metric hierarchy, 38–44, 39 fig. 2.2, 40 fig. 2.3, 41 fig. 2.4, 42 fig. 2.5, 44 fig. 2.6
limits of, 33–34, 37
well-formedness and, 71
tāla patterns.
Temperly, David, 115, 166
template matching, 50–51, 167
in Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 91
tempo, 38–46
effect on metric construal, 48
NI-meters and, 110–111
tempo-metrical types and, 76–77
tempo-metrical types, 76–77, 79, 167
Many Meters Hypothesis and, 153–156, 158–160, 163
NI-meters and, 110, 115
time points, 23, 26, 62, 65, 68–69, 103
and well-formedness constraints, 72–74, 74 fig. 4.6
time spans, 23
“Twinkle, Twinkle,” 13, 65–66, 65 ex. 4.6, 66 fig. 4.3
validity, ecological, 142–143, 150, 159
well-formedness, 7, 65, 69–70, 77–78, 162–163
Lerdahl, Fred & Ray Jackendoff's theory of, 69, 70–72
maximal evenness and, 103–105,
non-isochronous meters and, 101, 103
well-formedness constraints (WFCs), 72–73, 74 fig. 4.6, 103–105, 114–115, 162–163
Westergaard, Peter, 28–29, 28 tbl. 2.1
Woodrow, Herbert, 30
Yeston, Maury, 17
Zuckerkandl, Victor, 63, 63 ex. 4.4, 64 ex. 4.5