Racial Exclusion and the Making of an American Minority
This chapter deals with the impact of American racism on the Issei, which contributed to the development of a distinct racial identity among them in relation to other borderland residents. This process occurred at the level of their daily struggle as a racial(ized) minority — self-consciously identified as “the Japanese in America [zaibei doho]” — on the basis of shared interests in and concerns with power relations in the American West. Examining the critical linkages between white exclusionist politics and immigrant counterstruggles, the chapter explores the grassroots level of community formation, which coincided with the partial consolidation of immigrant leadership during the first two decades of the twentieth century.
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