This chapter reviews current knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in music perception, music production, and music learning. It argues that a basic understanding of the enormously complex neurobiological processes that underlie the musician's training and performance will eventually stimulate new insights into the practice and theory of music education. So far, the results of laboratory experiments have been, by necessity, restricted to very limited aspects of music making. Consequently, the brain mechanisms that underlie the rich universe of accomplished musicianship are mostly still inaccessible to brain research. To understand neural substrates of music performance it is first necessary to understand some basic neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. The chapter introduces essential general information for musical readers.
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