Just as personal commitments shape the character of professionals, failures of personal commitment and character enter into understanding their wrongdoing. We can distinguish two types of explanations of wrongdoing. Character explanations appeal to features of persons, either general flaws or specific failings manifested in immoral acts. Social explanations, in contrast, appeal to outside structures and pressures that contribute to misconduct, including influences within professions, corporations, and the wider society. This chapter seeks to renew an appreciation of character explanations, distinguishes some of their main varieties, and shows how they complement rather than compete with social explanations. The opening section clarifies how character explanations carry explanatory meaning and why their reference to values does not render them suspect. The concluding section integrates character and social explanations within a virtue-ethics framework for understanding mixed motives in response to multiple social influences, drawing upon and recasting Alasdair MacIntyre's distinctions between internal and external goods and between public and private goods.
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