Like elsewhere in Europe, the rise of the middle class in Poland at the start of the 19th century encouraged the growth of the instrument industry. The new forces of industrialization resulted in the introduction of intermediate stages of manufacturing between craft and mass production. The needs of the new marketplace also stimulated experimentation, resulting in new inventions and technological advancements in instrument construction. Quality string, wind, and keyboard instruments were produced in Warsaw. This chapter discusses the organs and pseudo-organs Chopin played in Warsaw in some detail, and special attention is given to the history of piano-making in Warsaw, especially to technologies employed by Buchholtz for his pianos, the best instruments built in Chopin's Warsaw. The chapter reflects on the pianos owned by Chopin and the instruments he played in his public concerts, as well as the prevailing contemporary aesthetic of sound.
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