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Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia$
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Louis A. Schmidt and Jay Schulkin

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780195118872

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118872.001.0001

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Lifelong Effects of Hormones on Brain Development: Relationship to Health and Disease

Lifelong Effects of Hormones on Brain Development: Relationship to Health and Disease

Chapter:
(p.173) 9 Lifelong Effects of Hormones on Brain Development: Relationship to Health and Disease
Source:
Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia
Author(s):

Bruce S. McEwen

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118872.003.0010

This chapter represents the neural circuits that underlie fear responses in animals and explores the possible implications for understanding fear and shyness in humans. It is shown in recent data that contextual and punctate auditory stimuli use different intra-amygdala pathways to access the central nucleus. There are two variables, similarity of a response to an animal's species-typical defensive behavior and degree of fear, that present two dimensions along which the reactive and active systems may interact. The amygdala appears to be the place where both learning and expression of fear responses take place.

Keywords:   neural circuits, fear, shyness, humans, amygdala, defensive behavior

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