This chapter demonstrates the basic principles involved in local circuits in general and reviews evidence for the organization of local circuits in the hippocampus. Local circuits in the hippocampus are comprised of excitatory connections from principal cells to interneurons and mainly inhibitory interneuronal connections onto principal cells. A smaller number of connections are made up of mutual inhibitory interneuronal interconnectivity and recurrent excitatory connectivity between principal cells. The pattern of local connectivity is diverse and represents a rich tapestry of prospective strategies for modifying initial responses to inputs and post hoc responses to continued input activity on the basis of previously generated outputs.
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