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Communism and NationalismKarl Marx versus Friedrich List$
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Roman Szporluk

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780195051032

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051032.001.0001

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The National System: Freedom Versus Organization

The National System: Freedom Versus Organization

(p.132) 9 The National System: Freedom Versus Organization
Communism and Nationalism

Roman Szporluk

Oxford University Press

List's theory of stages gives a basis for nation-to-nation comparison. As per List, all nations must be able to pass the following stages to attain industrial development: barbarism, pastoral, agricultural, agricultural-manufacturing, and agricultural-manufacturing-commercial. To be able to attain a higher level, it was necessary to use the power of the state. List's greatest theoretical achievement was the idea of productive power. He thought that it is more important than wealth itself. He established high standards for national goals and national leadership. He was a promoter of German industrialization. In fact, he became a favorite theorist of those “torried-zone” nations. Marx and List shared specific assumptions about the requirements a nation needs to qualify for participating in the future progress of history. However, they both took for granted the existence of civil society.

Keywords:   List, industrial development, national leadership, German industrialization, civil society

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