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Communism and NationalismKarl Marx versus Friedrich List$
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Roman Szporluk

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780195051032

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051032.001.0001

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List and Marx in Russia

List and Marx in Russia

(p.205) 13 List and Marx in Russia
Communism and Nationalism

Roman Szporluk

Oxford University Press

The chapter shows why nationalism was not the ideology of industrialization in Russia and why Marxism won out there instead. The interaction between nationalism and Marxism is best explained by two facts. First, Russia became a multinational empire before a modern Russia national identity was formed. Second, the state played an important role. List's program gave way to the formation of a modern Russian nation. It provided a solid basis for Russia's future. List recommended legal and political reforms while Witte left out references to List's liberalism. Witte isolated the economic factors of industrial growth. Thus, his program suffered. His program was undemocratic and thus he was not supported by the Russian population. Marxism, on the other hand, created the framework for the intelligentsia to argue Russia's condition and plan its future. Russia was ready and ripe economically, socially, and politically and it was receptive to Marxism.

Keywords:   nationalism, industrialization, Marxism, multinational empire, modern Russian nation, List's liberalism, intelligentsia

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