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Communism and NationalismKarl Marx versus Friedrich List$
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Roman Szporluk

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780195051032

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051032.001.0001

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Nationalism: The Unity of Theory and Practice

Nationalism: The Unity of Theory and Practice

(p.152) 10 Nationalism: The Unity of Theory and Practice
Communism and Nationalism

Roman Szporluk

Oxford University Press

The outcome of the revolutions from years 1848–9 was a great failure from the point of view of Marx and communism and of German, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian nationalisms. “Peasant” nations demanded the realization of their cultural, political, and socioeconomic aspirations. Frantisck Palacky helped establish a new national community from an ethnic group. This was supported by Miroslav Hroch who proposed the three-stage periodization of national movements. Eventually, the defeat of nationalism proved to be temporary. Germany and Italy became united after two decades. Hungary gained virtual independence in domestic affairs within the Hapsburg monarchy. The national movements of the nonhistoric people became stronger. As the Ottoman Empire declined, one Balkan area after another became independent. Areas of the Russian empire demanded recognition and respect. Nationalism became a program and a movement for the establishment of new kinds of communities. This was the unanticipated triumph of the nationalist ideology.

Keywords:   peasant nations, Frantisck Palacky, Hapsburg monarchy, Ottoman Empire, nations

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