- Title Pages
- Dedication
- Preface to Second Edition
- Preface to First Edition
- Acknowledgments
- 1 Basic Dynamics of Point Particles and Collections
- 2 Introduction to Lagrangian Mechanics
- 3 Lagrangian Theory of Constraints
- 4 Introduction to Hamiltonian Mechanics
- 5 The Calculus of Variations
- 6 Hamilton's Principle
- 7 Linear Operators and Dyadics
- 8 Kinematics of Rotation
- 9 Rotational Dynamics
- 10 Small Vibrations about Equilibrium
- 11 Central Force Motion
- 12 Scattering
- 13 Lagrangian Mechanics with Time as a Coordinate
- 14 Hamiltonian Mechanics with Time as a Coordinate
- 15 Hamilton'S Principle and Noether's Theorem
- 16 Relativity and Spacetime
- 17 Fourvectors and Operators
- 18 Relativistic Mechanics
- 19 Canonical Transformations
- 20 Generating Functions
- 21 Hamilton-Jacobi Therory
- 22 Angle‐Action Variables
- Appendix A Vector Fundamentals
- Appendix B Matrices and Determinants
- Appendix C Eigenvalue Problem with General Metric
- Appendix D The Calculus of Many Variables
- Appendix E Geometry of Phase Space
- References
- Index

# Fourvectors and Operators

# Fourvectors and Operators

- Chapter:
- (p.364) 17 Fourvectors and Operators
- Source:
- Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics
- Author(s):
### Oliver Davis Johns

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press

This chapter develops techniques that allow relativistically covariant calculations to be done in an elegant manner, and introduces fourvectors. These are analogous to the familiar vectors in three-dimensional Cartesian space – which will now be referred to as threevectors. The difference is that, in addition to the three spatial components, fourvectors will have an additional zeroth component associated with time which allows one to deal with the fact that the Lorentz transformation of special relativity transforms time as well as spatial coordinates. The theory of fourvectors and operators is presented using an invariant notation. Rather than considering a fourvector to be a set of components in some basis, it is considered to be something that models some physical property of the experiment under study and is independent of the choice of coordinate system.

*Keywords:*
relativistically covariant calculations, fourvectors, Cartesian space, threevectors, zeroth component

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- Title Pages
- Dedication
- Preface to Second Edition
- Preface to First Edition
- Acknowledgments
- 1 Basic Dynamics of Point Particles and Collections
- 2 Introduction to Lagrangian Mechanics
- 3 Lagrangian Theory of Constraints
- 4 Introduction to Hamiltonian Mechanics
- 5 The Calculus of Variations
- 6 Hamilton's Principle
- 7 Linear Operators and Dyadics
- 8 Kinematics of Rotation
- 9 Rotational Dynamics
- 10 Small Vibrations about Equilibrium
- 11 Central Force Motion
- 12 Scattering
- 13 Lagrangian Mechanics with Time as a Coordinate
- 14 Hamiltonian Mechanics with Time as a Coordinate
- 15 Hamilton'S Principle and Noether's Theorem
- 16 Relativity and Spacetime
- 17 Fourvectors and Operators
- 18 Relativistic Mechanics
- 19 Canonical Transformations
- 20 Generating Functions
- 21 Hamilton-Jacobi Therory
- 22 Angle‐Action Variables
- Appendix A Vector Fundamentals
- Appendix B Matrices and Determinants
- Appendix C Eigenvalue Problem with General Metric
- Appendix D The Calculus of Many Variables
- Appendix E Geometry of Phase Space
- References
- Index