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Who Belongs?Race, Resources, and Tribal Citizenship in the Native South$
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Mikaëla M. Adams

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190619466

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619466.001.0001

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Nation Building and Self-Determination

Nation Building and Self-Determination

The Seminole Tribe of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida

Chapter:
(p.169) 5 Nation Building and Self-Determination
Source:
Who Belongs?
Author(s):

Mikaëla M. Adams

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619466.003.0006

Linguistically diverse and geographically scattered in late nineteenth-century Florida, the Seminoles were united by their memories of three wars fought against the United States. To preserve their independence and avoid removal, the Seminoles rigorously policed interactions with outsiders. Increased contact with Americans brought change. Seminoles differed in their responses to missionaries, educators, reservation lands, and economic programs, which opened new tribal divisions. When official political status through federal recognition threatened to lock the tribe into one identity, tribal citizens responded by breaking into two federally-recognized tribes. Although they shared a common heritage, Seminole and Miccosukee citizens chose to belong to the tribe that most accurately reflected their worldview. The Seminoles and Miccosukees brought ideas of tribal citizenship and tribal sovereignty full circle: they claimed authority over their citizenship decisions, but they also asserted their right to self-determination by joining the tribe that best reflected their values.

Keywords:   Seminole, Miccosukee, citizenship, Florida, sovereignty, identity, race, enrollment, self-determination

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