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Who Belongs?Race, Resources, and Tribal Citizenship in the Native South$
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Mikaëla M. Adams

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190619466

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619466.001.0001

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From Fluid Lists to Fixed Rolls

From Fluid Lists to Fixed Rolls

The Catawba Indian Nation of South Carolina

(p.61) 2 From Fluid Lists to Fixed Rolls
Who Belongs?

Mikaëla M. Adams

Oxford University Press

Each year, Catawba tribal citizens received per capita payments for lands ceded to South Carolina in 1840. To distribute this money, the tribe had to negotiate its definitions of belonging with state officials who made the payments. Complicating this process, the tribe underwent several social changes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. After a majority of the tribe converted to Mormonism, some Catawbas migrated west with missionaries. The tribe debated whether these migrants still deserved shares of the tribe’s assets. Furthermore, the intermarriage of South Carolina Catawbas with whites raised questions about the status of their children. While confronting these issues, the Catawbas achieved federal recognition, which required the creation of an official tribal roll. The Catawba story demonstrates how one tribe used its citizenship criteria to respond to changing social conditions, and traces how the shift from state to federal recognition altered the process of defining citizenship.

Keywords:   Catawba, citizenship, South Carolina, Mormons, federal recognition, identity, race, enrollment, tribal rolls

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