This chapter conveys the key concepts, overarching methods, and common applications of agent-based modeling in population health science. This chapter will also provide the reader with a foundational understanding of how and why agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly employed to address pressing public health challenges of the 21st century. It demonstrates these concepts with an example that adopts ABM to simulate HIV transmission dynamics in high-risk populations. The chapter concludes with an in-depth discussion of two of the most promising avenues for the continued adoption of agent-based modeling approaches to improve population health: the evaluation of policy experiments and evidence synthesis.
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