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Women in Presidential CabinetsPower Players or Abundant Tokens?$
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Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon and Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190491420

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190491420.001.0001

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Making policy

Making policy

Evidence of an unequal playing field

(p.231) Chapter 10. Making policy
Women in Presidential Cabinets

Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon

Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson

Oxford University Press

Chapter 10 presents the final benchmark: legislative activity. Because the U.S. president and cabinet secretaries cannot directly initiate legislation, it examines only the four Latin American countries. Women initiate significantly fewer bills and fewer laws than do men. However, the legislative batting averages (number of laws passed divided by bills initiated) of women are comparable to those of men. In addition, the impact of minister sex on the number of bills initiated ceases to be significant once political capital resources and background are taken into account. However, political capital resources and backgrounds appear to have different effects for men and women. The discovery of inequality in bill and law sponsorship calls into question the extent of integration or incorporation of women in these cabinets.

Keywords:   executive sponsored legislation, presidential bills, bill sponsorship, legislative batting average, laws, bill initiation, political capital resources, women in cabinet

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