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Trading with the EnemyThe Making of US Export Control Policy toward the People's Republic of China$
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Hugo Meijer

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190277697

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190277697.001.0001

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Chinagate, the Cox Report, and Communications Satellites

Chinagate, the Cox Report, and Communications Satellites

(p.198) 6 Chinagate, the Cox Report, and Communications Satellites
Trading with the Enemy

Hugo Meijer

Oxford University Press

Satellites have intelligence as well as military applications. Space-based capabilities enable military forces to be warned of potential attacks, to communicate rapidly, and to identify and strike targets. Furthermore, the technology used to integrate the satellite with its launcher could be used by the People’s Liberation Army to upgrade its ballistic missile program. Chapter 6 shows how, in contrast with dual-use information and communications (ICT) technologies, in the area of satellite technology, after an initial loosening of the controls on communications satellites, the Control Hawks overturned this decision by passing legislation that imposed highly stringent controls on satellites, regulating them as military items rather than dual-use technologies and thereby prevailing over the Run Faster coalition in the 1990s. The concluding section of Part II brings to light the international and domestic factors, as well as the feedback loops, that explain these diverging policy outcomes in the areas of dual-use ICT and satellites.

Keywords:   satellites, ballistic missiles, export control policy, People’s Liberation Army, US Congress, satellite industry, lobbying, 1990s

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