Campaigns have taken advantage of technological changes, including computer technology, online fundraising, geotargeting, and microtargeting. During the 1952 presidential election, computer technology was first used to predict who would win. In 1960, computer simulation helped the Kennedy campaign determine the candidate would not lose ground if the race focused on religion. In the 1990s, advances in online technology allowed campaigns to begin online fundraising, which had numerous advantages over direct mail and telephone solicitation. Campaigns soon had websites on which voters could access information. Later, microtargeting and geotargeting techniques allowed for more advanced targeting of voters. Targeting consultants include Hal Malchow, Alex Gage, and Robert Blaemire. And eventually mobile phones and tablet apps came to be used to reach out to the electorate.
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