This chapter presents the overall profile of ergative languages. It develops a distinction between morphological and syntactic ergativity. Syntactic ergativity is defined as restrictions on A-bar movement of the ergative, and this definition is therefore narrower than some other existing definitions (e.g., those of Kazenin, Manning). The chapter shows ways in which languages can circumvent the restrictions on A-bar movement of ergatives. It discusses methodological and terminological issues related to ergativity. The appendix to the chapter provides strategies used to circumvent the restriction on A-bar movement of the ergative (antipassive, anti-agreement, nominalizations, etc.).
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