This chapter starts with the theory that the rise of nonstate armed groups (NAGs) is not an issue solely tied to the absence of state or the rise of ungoverned territories. In contrast, many rebel groups manage to sustain their operations against target states because of support they receive from other states. There are several types of state support, including safe havens, funds, troops, weapons, and logistics aid. Rebel groups are characterized as purposive decision makers with specific objectives, which lead them to prioritize between autonomy in operations and resource acquisition. Depending on their priorities, rebel groups, then, either seek intentional state supporters and/or de facto state supporters. Subsequently, this chapter lays the groundwork for development of the state-rebel selection theory, which addresses state-rebel interactions through the lens of interstate relations.
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