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The Shias of PakistanAn Assertive and Beleaguered Minority$
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Andreas Rieck

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190240967

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190240967.001.0001

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Shias and the Pakistan Movement

Shias and the Pakistan Movement

(p.31) 2 Shias and the Pakistan Movement
The Shias of Pakistan

Andreas Rieck

Oxford University Press

A large number of prominent Shia individuals have made crucial contributions to what has been termed the “Muslim political awakening” in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British India, as well as later in the “Pakistan Movement.” Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the iconic founding father of Pakistan, was himself a convert to Twelver Shi’ism, as were a number of his most important collaborators. But in the decade preceding the independence and partition of India, many Shias worried for the future of their community in the projected Islamic state of Pakistan, which had a clear Sunni majority. Some zealous Shia communalists demanded written guarantees for equal rights in the future state from Jinnah and his All India Muslim League, while others supported the Congress Party which opposed partition. But by 1946 most Shias in those Indian states which would become Pakistan in 1947 were all-out supporters of the Muslim League. This was of special importance in the Punjab which became the core province of Pakistan.

Keywords:   Muslim political awakening, Pakistan Movement, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, All India Muslim League, Shia communalists, equal rights, Punjab, Shia, Pakistan

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