November 2002 and After
This chapter examines why no coup has been staged by the Turkish military since November 2002. It first discusses the reasons behind the Justice and Development Party's (AKP) ascendancy in Turkish politics and evaluates its performance between 2002 and 2010. In particular, it considers how an Islamist-leaning party such as AKP achieved cultural hegemony in Turkey by focusing on the role played by Fethullah Gülen, founder of the Service Community (Hizmet Cemaat). It also analyzes how AKP altered Turkey's foreign policy that signaled a shift from Kemalist isolationism to what became known as “neo-Ottomanism.” Finally, it explains why the military expanded the Turkish security sector in 1980, along with the troubles faced by AKP that culminated in its loss of control on parliament in the 2015 national elections and the rise of the People's Democratic Party (HDP) led by Selahattin Demirtas. The chapter argues that the AKP not only curbed the military's political influence, but also resolved to punish officers for their past sins, and that the future of Turkish democracy remains uncertain.
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